Community Insights/Community Insights 2020 Report/Collaboration, Diversity & Inclusion (2020)/Geographical and project differences
To examine potential differences in Collaborative Engagement, Diversity, and Inclusion experienced by movement contributors with different geographic or project profiles, we looked at key geographies (i.e. Continent) as well as project space (i.e., Wikipedia, Other Wikimedia project space, Affiliates, Movement Organizers, and Developer spaces).
Before diving into geographic differences found along the Collaborative Engagement and Diversity & Inclusion factors, it is important to note some intersections between geography and the individual demographics already considered. While there was no significant difference in the continental distribution of males to non-males, there were significant differences in terms of English fluency, Age, and Education. 1
Figure 3. Contributors in Asia & Pacific had significantly fewer years of formal schooling than all other regions and were half as likely as contributors from South America to have more than 18 years. Contributors with less formal education were also more significant among audiences from South America as well as Asia & Pacific.
Geography and Collaborative Engagement
As noted by the superscript asterisk marks in the chart labels, five of the nine Collaborative Engagement factors were rated significantly different dependent on the survey participants' continent. Collaborative Engagement factors were strongest among respondents from Africa with 12 to 22 percent more likelihood of favorable ratings for the factors overall. The largest differences were observed in relation to experiences of Engagement, Fairness, Awareness of Others and Movement Strategy.
There was also a significant difference predicted by geography in terms of perceptions of Movement Leadership and Movement Strategy. Ratings by participants in Africa stood out as significantly higher while ratings by participants in North America tended to be lower across all factors.
Only about three percent of survey participants completing the social climate questions were from the African continent, still, ratings were significantly higher along several of the Collaborative Engagement Factors compared to other continents. Specifically, for contributors from Africa Awareness of Others was rated significantly lower compared to all other continents while Engagement scores were highest for contributors from Africa compared to all other continents. For Engagement, both North America and Africa shared higher ratings compared to Asia & Pacific. Fairness scores were lower for contributors in Asia & Pacific, and, to some extent, South America compared to Europe while Movement Strategy scores were highest in Africa and Asia & Pacific, significantly higher than for contributors in Europe and North America. 2
When looking closer into specific country comparisons there were four Collaborative Engagement factors which demonstrated country level differences. For Engagement, participants from Japan rated their perceptions lower than participants from Brazil, Germany, Russia and The US (p < 0.001), who in turn rated their perceptions significantly lower than participants from France and Spain (p < 0.001). For Feelings of Belonging, again, participants from Japan gave significantly lower ratings than those from US or Brazil (p < 0.01) or from Germany, Spain, France, or Russia (p < 0.001). For Movement Leadership, participants from Brazil, Japan, the US, and Spain rated their perceptions significantly lower than participants from France or Russia (p < 0.001). For Movement Strategy, participants from Japan rated their perceptions significantly lower than participants from the US, France, Russia, or Spain (p < 0.001).
Geography, Diversity, & Inclusion
Individual Commitment to Diversity was highest among editors in Africa and lowest in Asia & Pacific, Europe, or South America. Those in North America and Asia & Pacific were also more likely to experience discrimination. For Non-Discrimination, ratings by participants in Europe were significantly higher than for those in Asia & Pacific. For Individual Commitment to Diversity, those in Africa reported scores much higher than those in Asia & Pacific, Europe, or South America. 3
When looking closer into specific country comparisons, country differences were observed for each of the Diversity & Inclusion factors. For Non-Discrimination participants from Spain and Brazil rated their perceptions significantly lower than France and Germany (p < 0.01). For Inclusive Interactions, participants from Russia and Japan reported significantly lower ratings than those from Brazil, France, Germany, Spain, and the US (p < 0.05). For Inclusive Culture and Leadership Commitment to Diversity, participants from Japan reported significantly lower ratings than those from France, Germany, and the US (p < 0.05) who in turn gave lower ratings than participants from Brazil and Spain (p < 0.05). Lastly, Individual Commitment to Diversity scores were significantly higher among participants from France and the US than those from Russia and Brazil.
Project Space and Collaborative Engagement
Whether working on Wikipedia, other online spaces, or elsewhere in the Wikimedia Movement the least perceived factor for Collaborative Engagement is Awareness of Self and Others. However, there were several factors that were experienced differently for survey participants from different Wikimedia workspaces. As noted by the superscript asterisk marks in the chart labels, four of the nine Collaborative Engagement factors were rated significantly differently, dependent on the survey participants identified workspace. The largest difference was observed in relation to experiences of Movement Strategy, Fairness, and Engagement.
There was also a significant difference predicted by project working space in terms of perceptions of Awareness of Others. In most cases, those editors who contribute as program, affiliate, or movement organizers shared ratings significantly higher than contributors to online editor or developer spaces across these factors.
Less than 40 percent of editors surveyed focused on contribution outside of Wikipedia. For those who did, their experiences of the different social climate factors varied. Significant differences were found between groups along four of the nine factors of Collaborative Engagement. Engagement scores reported were significantly higher for active editors whose home project was Commons or Movement organizing compared to Developers or those whose home project was Wikipedia. Organizers also had significantly higher scores than those whose project home was Wikipedia in terms of Feelings of Belonging, Fairness, and Movement Strategy. Those whose project home was the Developer space or Wikipedia also scored lower in terms of perceptions of Fairness and Movement Strategy compared to those whose project home was Commons or other Wikimedia project spaces. 4
Drilling deeper into online Wikimedia project spaces, Wikipedia contributors tended to share a stronger sense of Awareness of Others, but otherwise tended to score lower on two Collaborative Engagement factors, Fairness and Engagement, compared to contributors with home wikis in other online Wikimedia project spaces. (See Appendix: 2019 Descriptive statistics)
Project Space, Diversity, & Inclusion
As noted by the superscript asterisk marks in the chart labels, only three of the five Diversity and Engagement factors were rated significantly differently dependent on the survey participants identified workspace. The largest difference was observed in relation to experiences of Non-Discrimination and Individual Commitment to Diversity. There was also a a trend difference predicted by project working space in terms of perceptions of Inclusive Culture, however, it did not reach significance.
Drilling deeper into online Wikimedia project spaces, Diversity and Inclusion factors varied inconsistently (See also Appendix: Social Climate Factors by Online Project Space). Those in the organizer or developer spaces scored significantly lower on Non-Discrimination than those whose home space is Wikipedia, Commons, or other online Wikimedia project spaces indicating they are much more likely to witness, or directly experience, discrimination in the course of their activities. In addition, those whose home project is an online Wikimedia project other than Wikipedia, Commons, or Wikidata also reported higher scores for Non-Discrimination, while Organizers indicated significantly higher scores in terms of Individual Commitment to Diversity compared to those who make Wikipedia their home project space. 5
The Intersection of Project Space, English-Fluency, and Being Male
Drilling deeper into intersections of online project space and significant dominant characteristics of English fluency, and being Male; dominant class identification demonstrated an additive effect along several factors such that, especially on Wikipedia, non-males with no English fluency reported less positive experiences with collaborative engagement factors while experiencing more discrimination and unfair edit challenges and less positive experiences in terms of Non-Discrimination, Individual Commitment to Diversity, and Inclusive Culture.
Those factors which demonstrated more strength predicted by these dominant characteristics included: Problem-Solving & Negotiating, Self-awareness, Collaborative Intention, Awareness of Others, Feelings of Belonging, and Movement Leadership. In some cases, other online Wikimedia project spaces seemed to offer some protection from this overall effect (i.e., Awareness of Others, Collaborative Intention, Inclusive Interactions, and Problem Solving & Negotiating). 5 (See also Appendix: Social Climate Factors by Project Space and Significant Dominant Traits)