社群技术/维基正文语法高亮编辑器

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This page is a translated version of the page Community Tech/Wikitext editor syntax highlighting and the translation is 88% complete.

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维基正文语法高亮编辑器的项目是旨在为贡献者更加容易与更方通过使用颜色和阴影的链接代码来编辑该维基正文并让使其的正文从文章中的文本在视觉上直接地分离该文本,参考资料以及该模板。这将有助于让编辑者在具有许多参考文献的段落中工作顺利,或者是在复杂的模板那里很容易出大括号的错过并弄乱该模板。我们同时也使用该Extension:CodeMirror来编辑。

英语版本的语法高亮截图。
印地语版本的语法高亮截图。
用户第一次弹出的语法高亮截图。

该语法高亮在经典的维基正文编辑器以及在新版本的维基正文编辑器(NWE)里都既可以使用的到,依照一个按钮(Codemirror-icon.png)的出现在工具栏。用户可以使用开启和关闭该语法高亮的按钮。这是通过参数设置的隐藏来完成的,所以若是您关闭它那么它将停留下来,直到您再次开启它为止。

该功能的主要建设是由用户Pastakhov所开发的,以及让社群技术里的志工队来协助并替他完成该功能的发展。在社区技术里的方面,用户Niharika以及Ryan做下了大部分的工作,用户Ed Sanders在编辑团队的帮助下使用了维基正文模式的可视化编辑器来集成的。

基本原理

我们决定使用Extension:CodeMirror来作为语法高亮的工具。

这里以下的代码镜像(CodeMirror)所提供了该优势的详情:

  • 更快的性能,已经被大量的优化
  • 使用"wysiwyg"-风格的效果,使其更容易看见该维基正文分子的影响 -- 例如,粗体的单词以粗体的文字为显示,斜体为显示斜体。
  • 章节标题较大,并有助于编辑者在屏幕上航行。
  • 链接是下划线和蓝色的,并使得他们更加可识别该链接。当显示的文字与链接不同时,该链接会是蓝色的,以及在管道之后所显示的文字会是黑色的,来以表明这部分是将被视为已看过的文本。
  • 为模板参数并使用粗体的彩色文字,条目的浅色文字。
  • 在链接上并使用浅色的背景高亮,而不是其他的元素。太多的背景高亮会使得该维基正文更难以扫描。
  • 等待编辑器在更改高亮的彩色之前先完成打字,让编辑器来完成键入该链接或者是该粗体/斜体的文字而不会将该行下面所有内容的文字闪烁为不同的彩色。

我们在决定使用代码镜像(CodeMirror)的之前注视到其他工具如wikEd由Cacycle,以及Syntax highlighter由Remember the dot等等之类的东西。

Status Updates

June 14, 2018

Syntax highlighting has graduated from Beta Feature status and is now available for all users inside the 2010 Wikitext Editor on all left-to-right language wikis, in addition to all languages in the 2017 Wikitext Editor. The feature can be enabled during any edit by selecting the 🖋 Highlight icon in the toolbar.

We hope this feature makes it easier to edit in wikitext and debug malformed markup. We'd love to hear your feedback on the talkpage.

May 30, 2018

Syntax highlighting is now available for all users inside the 2017 Wikitext Editor on all wikis. In the 2010 wikitext editor we have decided to not fix any of the edge case defects for Internet Explorer or Edge, and we are not going to support IME editing (phab:T194102).

Community Tech is currently focusing all attention on another 6-week project so development will resume in July. We hope to have the feature released by the end of July or early August. You can track the rollout here: phab:T185030.

April 30, 2018

Syntax highlighting will be available without a beta feature for 2017 Wikitext Editor on all Wikimedia projects (LTR and RTL) this week.

April 26, 2018

We are nearly ready to graduate this feature from beta on the 2017 wikitext editor for both LTR and RTL languages and the 2010 wikitext editor for LTR languages. We're been working on fixing the last bout of bugs from different browsers+editor combination.

When graduated from beta, the feature will be available for all users inside the wikitext editor, but will still require enabling by clicking the ✍️ highlighter icon in the toolbar or ≡ menu.

March 7, 2018

"Wikitext editor syntax highlighting" has survived as a beta feature for more than six months now. The influx of bug reports we saw when it was first launched has been reduced to a trickle. There are some outstanding bugs that the team is working on fixing.

Unfortunately, work on getting RTL support is still pending. The issues with RTL lie in the underlying library for the extension, CodeMirror, and need support from the library maintainer to get fixed. The library is undergoing a rewrite after which we will potentially be able to address the RTL issues. The extension is on the Hebrew beta wiki where the RTL issues can be tested.

We're hoping to get "Wikitext editor syntax highlighting" out of beta within the next month. The feature will be available for all to use by default as a toolbar option in the 2010 and 2017 Wikitext editors. You can follow phab:T185030 to stay up-to-date with the developments on this project.

Sept 19, 2017

Happy to report that a couple important bugs are fixed! Ctrl-F browser search now works for both the regular edit window and the new wikitext mode, and word jumping using the option+arrow key now works on Mac browsers.

Fixing browser spellcheck is close to done; we'll be releasing that fix soon.

We still need to fix an issue with the new wikitext mode not respecting whether the beta feature is turned on or off -- you can turn it off on the Beta features page, but still see it on in the new wikitext mode. You can follow progress on this ticket: phab:T173480.

Sept 7, 2017

We're currently working on an important bug -- the Ctrl-F browser search only works if the text you're looking for is currently displayed in the edit window, or just below it. We've been investigating this for the last couple of weeks; here's an update on how it's going. You can follow progress on this ticket: phab:T174480.

We were looking at using the search add-on that GitHub uses in their version of CodeMirror, and it's not an acceptable solution for us. It only works when you've got the cursor in the edit window -- if you're not inside the edit window, ctrl-F still gives you the browser search. That's not very discoverable -- for some people, it would just be broken sometimes. The add-on also uses a combination of ctrl-F to start the search and ctrl-G to move from one highlighted word to another, which is also not very discoverable. So that is a dead end for us.

We're now investigating a couple other options, including loading the page outside the edit window in the background, after the text in the edit window is displayed. This might slow things down, so we're testing the performance.

We're still focused on solving this issue; I'm sorry it's not fixed yet.

Aug 23, 2017

Some feedback from Andy M. on Wikimedia-L to consider:

"My first impression is that it is lacking in contrast - it's far harder, now, to differentiate the various types of content. Indeed the colour pairs used (e.g. #8800CC vs. #AAAAB3) fail WCAG web accessibility guidelines for colour contrast. I realise that choice of styling colours is a "bikeshed" matter, but contrast ratio is a quantifiable and objective accessibility issue. Also, because the script does not load immediately, the larger headings cause the page to "dance" as the script kicks in."

Aug 2, 2017

Syntax Highlighting has now been released as a Beta feature on all LTR Wikimedia projects! We hope that people love using the new feature. Please leave feedback on the talk page!

We're still working on making it work for RTL languages; you can follow this progress on this ticket: T170001.

Temporarily turned off, see phabricator:T172458.

July 18, 2017

CodeMirror deployed to Simple English Wikipedia as a Beta Feature.

March 22, 2017

Team discussion, playing with CodeMirror on CommTechwiki. Performance is good, as advertised. We're generally happy with the highlighting choices. We found some bugs, and some elements that should be improved -- for example, ref tags aren't highlighted in the current version. Ryan took a lot of notes, and he'll be working on these issues -- either working with the developers, or making adjustments on our own version.

March 21, 2017

Ryan talked to Ed S on the Editing team -- they're interested in including the syntax highlighter in the new wikitext editor. This will require some investigation.

There's a current hacked version by Ed: https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/#/c/343878/

This version works by loading CodeMirror underneath the WikiText editor surface, making the text and background of the WikiText editor transparent, and syncing user input from the WikiText editor to the CodeMirror surface as it is entered. The problem is that it's sluggish and has syncing issues -- see phab:T161054 and phab:T161052 for more.

February 27, 2017

There's an existing extension -- Extension:CodeMirror -- that provides wikitext syntax highlighting on demand, adding a button at the top of the wikitext editor to turn highlighting on and off. (This uses a sticky preference so that an editor can turn it on once, and then see it on all future page loads.) The highlighting is acceptably fast, it takes less than a second even on a lengthy article like English WP's Barack Obama page.

There are two different use cases for syntax highlighting -- essentially, it could be a power editor feature, or a new editor training tool. Very active editors want syntax highlighting to help them edit; if this is the use case that we're focusing on, then we can make it a special preference, and let people decide if they want to use it. If we want to focus on helping new editors, then the feature would have to be on by default, and would require much stricter QA. The comments on the Wishlist proposal and votes indicate that people are requesting the power editor feature.

With that in mind -- we're planning to deploy CodeMirror as a special preference for the old wikitext editor. This will need some instruction on the preferences page to explain how to use the button & turn it on.

The VE team is planning to include this in the 2017 wikitext editor as well; we'll talk to Ed S. to see how we can work together. We'll have to make sure we agree on the color choices. In general, we'll be expected to explain the color choices, so we'll look at the existing CodeMirror colors and make sure we understand the rationale.

Another thing we have to figure out -- how will this work outside of en.wp?


重要链接

彩色以及文风的定义设置

该彩色以及风格可以在你的common.css页面下表为分类并通过撤销自己的彩色和文风来定义(User:例子/common.css)。

如果你不熟悉编辑CSS,请参见该以下的初学者章节

You can control the appearance of the CodeMirror editing window as a whole using the .CodeMirror-lines CSS class. Use this at your own risk. Some things like changing the line-height will not work in the 2017 wikitext editor. Also be aware that rules added for any of the below CSS classes will have precedence.

CSS Class(es) Element CodeMirror styling (CSS) wikEd's styling (See InitFrameCSS) Schnark's styling Rememberthedot's styling
.cm-mw-skipformatting leading space foo bar  foo bar  foo bar
.cm-mw-list asterisk or number sign * foo bar, # foo bar * foo bar # foo bar * foo bar # foo bar * foo bar # foo bar
.cm-mw-signature,

.cm-mw-hr

signature, horizontal rule ∼∼∼∼, ---- ~~~~, ---- ~~~~, ---- ~~~~, ----
.cm-mw-indenting colons ::: foo bar ::: foo bar ::: foo bar ::: foo bar
.cm-mw-mnemonic HTML entities & & & &
.cm-mw-comment HTML comment <!-- comment --> <!-- comment --> <!-- comment --> <!-- comment -->
.cm-mw-apostrophes-bold,

.cm-mw-apostrophes-italic

bold and italic '''bold''' ''italic'' '''bold''' ''italic'' '''bold''' ''italic'' '''bold''' ''italic''
Headings
pre.cm-mw-section-1 heading (size not changed in NWE) = Heading = = Heading = = Heading = = Heading =
pre.cm-mw-section-2 heading (size not changed in NWE) == Heading == == Heading == == Heading == == Heading ==
pre.cm-mw-section-3 heading === Heading === === Heading === === Heading === === Heading ===
pre.cm-mw-section-4 heading ==== Heading ==== ==== Heading ==== ==== Heading ==== ==== Heading ====
pre.cm-mw-section-5 heading ===== Heading ===== ===== Heading ===== ===== Heading ===== ===== Heading =====
pre.cm-mw-section-6 heading ====== Heading ====== ====== Heading ====== ====== Heading ====== ====== Heading ======
.cm-mw-section-header equals signs ==
Templates
example {{cite book|title=foo bar}} {{cite book|title=foo bar}} {{cite book|title=foo bar}} {{cite book|title=foo bar}}
.cm-mw-template other template content foo bar
.cm-mw-template-name template name cite book cite book
.cm-mw-template-argument-name template parameters title= title=
.cm-mw-template-delimiter pipe | |
.cm-mw-template-bracket opening/closing brackets {{ }} {{ }}
.cm-mw-template-ground

.cm-mw-template2-ground
.cm-mw-template3-ground

whole template

(number is the level of nesting)

{{foo|{{cite book|title=foo bar}}}}
Variables
example {{{foo|bar}}} {{{foo|bar}}} {{{foo bar}}} {{{foo bar}}}
.cm-mw-templatevariable variable bar
.cm-mw-templatevariable-name triple-braced variable name foo
.cm-mw-templatevariable-bracket opening/closing brackets {{{ }}}
.cm-mw-templatevariable-delimiter pipe |
Parser functions
example {{#assessment: A | High }} {{PAGENAME}}
.cm-mw-parserfunction parser function parameters High
.cm-mw-parserfunction-name parser function name PAGENAME #invoke
.cm-mw-parserfunction-bracket opening/closing brackets {{ }}
.cm-mw-parserfunction-delimiter delimiter :
Extension tags
Note: The extensions can use own styles and rules for highlighting text inside own tags. For example the Cite extension highlights text inside <ref> tags as a wikitext.
example <poem style="padding: 1em;">string
whole line
string</poem>
<ref name="foo"> </ref> <tag>...</tag> <tag>...</tag>
pre.cm-mw-exttag whole line inside tags
whole line
.cm-mw-exttag text inside tags string
.cm-mw-exttag-name tag name poem
.cm-mw-exttag-bracket opening/closing brackets < >
.cm-mw-exttag-attribute reference attributes style="padding: 1em;"
HTML tags
example <span style="foo">foo bar</span> <span style="foo">foo bar</span> <tag style="foo">foo bar</tag> <tag style="foo">foo bar</tag>
.cm-mw-htmltag-name HTML tag span
.cm-mw-htmltag-bracket opening/closing brackets < >
.cm-mw-htmltag-attribute parameters and values style="foo"

superscript subscript

foo<sup>bar</sup> foo<sub>bar</sub>

Foo<sup>bar</sup>
Foo<sub>bar</sub>

Pre-formatted text
pre.cm-mw-tag-pre,

.cm-mw-tag-pre

pre-formatted text <pre>foo bar</pre> <pre>foo bar</pre> <tag>foo bar</tag> <tag>foo bar</tag>
pre.cm-mw-tag-nowiki,

.cm-mw-tag-nowiki

nowiki text <nowiki>foo bar</nowiki> <nowiki>foo bar</nowiki> <tag>foo bar</tag> <tag>foo bar</tag>
Internal links
example

[[foo bar]] [[foo#section|bar]]

[[foo bar]] [[foo#section|bar]]

[[foo bar]] [[foo#section|bar]]

[[foo bar]] [[foo#section|bar]]

.cm-mw-link-pagename internal link target foo bar
.cm-mw-link # character #section
.cm-mw-link-tosection characters after the # #section
.cm-mw-link-bracket opening/closing brackets [[ ]]
.cm-mw-link-text link label (no additional formatting)
.cm-mw-link-delimiter pipe |
.cm-mw-pagename internal link targets foo bar
External links
example

https://www.example.org [https://www.example.org] [https://www.example.org example.org]

https://www.example.org [https://www.example.org] [https://www.example.org example.org]

https://example.org [https://example.org] [https://example.org example.org]

https://example.org [https://example.org] [https://example.org example.org]

.cm-mw-extlink,

.cm-mw-free-extlink

external link target www.example.org
.cm-mw-extlink-protocol,

.cm-mw-free-extlink-protocol

protocol https://
.cm-mw-extlink-text link label (no additional formatting)
.cm-mw-extlink-bracket opening/closing brackets [ ]
Tables
example

{| class="wikitable" |- ! Header text !! Header text |- | Example || Example |}

{| class="wikitable" |- ! Header text !! Header text  |- | Example || Example  |}

{| class="wikitable" |- ! Header text !! Header text  |- | Example || Example  |}

{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Header text !! Header text
|-
| Example || Example
|}

.cm-mw-table-bracket opening/closing brackets and pipe {| |}
.cm-mw-table-delimiter row and column separators | |- !
.cm-mw-table-definition table classes and styles class="wikitable"
.cm-mw-table-caption header cell text !caption
Non-CodeMirror
magic words __TOC__ __TOC__ __TOC__
semi-colon (d.term) ; foo bar
(treated as extension tag) math <math>\sum_{i=0}^\infty 2^{-i}</math> <math>\sum_{i=0}^\infty 2^{-i}</math> <tag>foo bar</tag> <tag>foo bar</tag>
(treated as extension tag) syntaxhighlight (former score) <syntaxhighlight>...</syntaxhighlight> <syntaxhighlight>...</syntaxhighlight> <tag>foo bar</tag> <tag>foo bar</tag>
(treated as internal link) category [[category:foo bar]] [[category:foo bar]] [[category:foo bar]] [[category:foo bar]]
file preview (file preview at the right-hand edge)
character disambig

(nbsp thinsp ndash mdash minus etc.)

WikEd character disambiguation.png  (screenshot) -

如何为那些对CSS了解甚少的人来做到这一点的

  • 打开您所想要应用在这个维基上的[[Special:MyPage/common.css]]页面(使用m:Special:MyPage/global.css折是代替所有维基上的页面)。
  • 列表中显示了一个例子(* 以及 #)。添加一行
    .cm-mw-list {background-color: green; color: red;}
    
    的线条在底部(该cm-mw-list列表会来自上表中的第二个表格行),并保存起来。打开一些高亮编辑的页面并尝试该列表 - * 以及 #。绿色以及红色可以使用你所喜欢的彩色来代替,例如红绿蓝(rgb)的彩色折是使用 #123456 的代码。
  • 通过在同一个维基上见解有列表的编辑视窗并进行保存及测试以便能看出该工作是否有按照预期而形成。(该符号的背景应当是绿色的以及该符号是红色的)。
  • 编辑您的common.css页面以及将该colours更改为您所喜欢的任何内容,并再次保存。
  • 对所有你想要的改变做出同样的事情,使用来自表格第一列的代码并选择你的恰当彩色。
  • 如果您偶尔需要更改为其他特殊用途的彩色,你可以使用常规/* ... */的厚块注释来注出一组CSS的代码并添加另一组的注释。若要更改回来,将注释代码从一组转换到另一组。这会有一点头痛,但总比没有得选择来的更好。
  • 如果你更喜欢在许多维基上使用一些配色方案而在另一个或两个维基上使用另一种配色方案,按照他们的说明来使用本地的文件 - 这将会覆盖到全域的维基上。