Conhecimento livre baseado nas licenças Creative Commons
Conhecimento livre baseado nas licenças Creative Commons: consequências, riscos e efeitos colaterais do módulo de licenciamento "apenas uso não comercial – NC".
Por todo o mundo, um número cada vez maior de pessoas usa as licenças públicas oferecidas pela Creative Commons (CC), a fim de disponibilizar os resultados da sua criatividade para serem re-usados por outros. Além deles projetos, instituições e iniciativas diversas cada vez mais aderem ao lema CC: "Alguns direitos reservados". Um de seus exemplos mais populares é a Wikimedia Foundation que, juntamente com a sua comunidade mundial de ativistas decidiu, em 2008, licenciar a sua enciclopédia universal (Wikipédia) sob a licença CC BY SA - Attribution Share-Alike (Atribuição-CompartilhaIgual).
Essa licença é apenas uma das seis licenças principais na suite CC. As licenças mais usadas desse pacote tem a abreviatura adicional NC em seus nomes, significando "apenas para uso não-comercial". Muitos licenciantes que intuitivamente escolhem uma licença NC fazem isso com a compreensível intenção de impedir que seus trabalhos sejam indesejável e incontrolavelmente explorados por empresas e pessoas com vistas a lucrarem a partir de seus esforços.
As muitas outras consequências dessa escolha, no entanto, são geralmente desconhecidas. Este folheto, elaborado pela Wikimedia Deutschland, Creative Commons da Alemanha e iRights.info tem o objetivo de suprir essa lacuna de informações. Nós esperamos comentários e sugestões relacionados a esta empreitada, e esperamos que ela produza muitos momentos bacanas.
Agradecemos especialmente a Open Knowledge Foundation da Alemanha, que apoiou e facilitou a tradução ao inglês do texto original.
John H. Weitzmann, CC DE Legal Project Lead
- 1 Prefácio
- 2 Introdução
- 3 1. O que entendemos por Conteúdo Aberto? - Conteúdo que pode ser usado livremente.
- 4 2. Por que conteúdo é posto sob uma licença CC? - Para fazê-lo mais usável.
- 5 3. Por que existem diferentes licenças CC? - Licenças CC refletem os diferentes interesses dos autores.
- 6 4. How does the NC module affect the way content can be distributed? – NC-licensed content cannot be distributed as widely and easily.
- 7 5. What is commercial use? – Any use, that is primarily directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
- 8 6. Can a CC license with the NC module prevent my content from being used by radicals or extremists? – No. Extremists want to change society, not make profit.
- 9 7. Is the NC module the only option to prevent the appropriation of my content through commercial enterprises? – No. There are other options, such as the Share Alike module.
- 10 8. Can NC-licensed content be used in the Wikipedia project? – No. Wikipedia contents are being used commercially.
- 11 9. Can you release NC-licensed content specifically and separately for Wikipedia despite the NC restrictions? – No. The accessibility rules of Wikipedia must not become too complex.
- 12 10. O módulo NC previne uso comercial? - Sim, mas frequentemente em todos os lugares errados.
- 13 12. Conteúdo licenciado em NC pode ser impresso em jornais? - Não. Jornais são em todos os casos usuários comerciais.
- 14 13. Can NC-licensed content be used in schools, training and universities? – No, not everywhere.
- 15 14. How do you classify NC-licensed content that is first used at school, but later outside of school? – If used outside of school, the use is often to be considered commercial.
- 16 15. How does NC affect mashups? – Not all CC licenses can be combined with each other.
- 17 16. Can a third party commercial usage benefit the author? – Yes. If you are interested in distributing your content widely, you should allow commercial uses.
- 18 17. Can a user of CC-licensed content create the outward impression that the author endorses the particular usage? – No. A CC-license explicitly does not suggest endorsement.
- 19 18. Can the NC module still have any advantages? – Yes, but less often than you would think.
- 20 19. Sob qual licença o conteúdo da Wikipédia é publicado? - A licença CC-BY-SA.
- 21 Conclusão
“Imagine um mundo onde toda e qualquer pessoa possa compartilhar livremente a soma de todo conhecimento. Este é o nosso compromisso.”
— Visão estratégica da Wikimedia Foundation.
Com as licenças Creative Commons, "creatives"(?)
Muitos criativos desejam fazer parte do estabelecimento de sociedades de conhecimento modernas. Eles não querem manter a menção "todos os direitos reservados" - bem pelo contrário. Eles possuem interesse em ver o trabalho deles usados por muitos. Isso acontece principalmente devido às oportunidades que a Internet oferece de distribuir e compartilhar conhecimento e informação de uma forma sem precedentes.
Creative Commons (CC) é reconhecido como o melhor grupo de ferramentas para liberar conteúdo próprio. No entanto, as licenças CC não são todas iguais. Um ponto forte do CC é que ele dá aos criadores a oportunidade de enquadrar as condições de uso que são mais importantes para eles. O usuário (o público) obtém apenas alguns direitos, enquanto os demais permanecem com o autor ou com o detentor dos direitos da obra. Isto é conseguido através de um conjunto de diferentes licenças.
Within the different modules of the Creative Commons licenses, especially the restriction NC – noncommercial use only – is very popular with the authors. A commercial usage is not allowed under this condition. However, deciding on a license that does not allow commercial use has extensive consequences.
Muitas possibilidades de uso, como a inclusão em comunidades de conhecimento e arquivos, a Wikipédia, jornais locais, publicações, compilações e "mashups", são de fatoexcluídas e portanto requerem uma aprovação adicional - e apesar do fato dessas inclusões serem frequentemente desejadas pelos autores.
This booklet will explain all consequences of choosing a CC license variant restricted to noncommercial use only (NC). Often enough, the intended effects which lead to selecting the NC module can just as well be achieved by other means. In some cases, the NC module is completely unsuited to achieve the effects intended by the author. On the other hand, its use has extensive, often unwanted consequences on the possibilities of content distribution. The decision to apply the NC module need therefore be carefully considered.
1. O que entendemos por Conteúdo Aberto? - Conteúdo que pode ser usado livremente.
Conteúdo Aberto é conteúdo que é aberto e totalmente acessível - regra, não apenas depois que o autor dá a permissão individual. Isso não é uma questão definida. A legislação de Direitos Autorais entende que conteúdo só pode ser distribuído e usado quando o dono dos direitos explicitamente o permite. No entanto, usar essa regra-base na era digital está se tornando mais e mais questionável. A cultura humana tem sempre sido moldada pelo desejo de melhorar o existente. Todos constroem sobre o que outros criaram anteriormente.
Conteúdo digital pode ser reproduzido e usado com uma facilidade sem precedentes. Portanto, aquilo que é tecnicamente possível deve tornar-se possível pela lei. O ideal do conhecimento livre, sempre acessível a todos, precisa de uma base legal que se aplique perfeitamente ao contexto da internet. Cientistas em particular têm destacado o grande potencial da internet e da troca livre de conhecimento. Em 2003, organizações cientificas alemãs pediram por meio da Declaração de Berlim acesso livre aos trabalhos científicos:
Nossa missão de disseminar o conhecimento está incompleta se a informação não se tornar extensiva e prontamente disponível para a sociedade.
Há hoje muitos projetos que tem como missão criar e distribuir conhecimento livre. Esse gráfico mostra apenas alguns deles:
- a enciclopédia Wikipédia é o lugar onde seus usuários podem coletar o conhecimento da Humanidade;
- a Open Acess possibilita troca de conhecimento no âmbito acadêmico;
- a Fundação Open Knowledge promove a publicação, uso e re-uso de bases de conhecimento livre.
Tudo isso é feito ao aplicar licenças livres, das quais a Creative Commons Public License(CCPL) e a GNU General Public License (GPL) são exemplos proeminentes.
Novas possibilidades de disseminação de conhecimento através não apenas da forma clássica mas também e crescentemente através do paradigma do acesso livre pela da Internet têm que ser apoiadas. Nós definimos acesso livre como uma fonte compreensiva de conhecimento humano e herança cultural que tem sido aprovada pela comunidade científica.
No sentido de perceber a visão de uma representação de conhecimento global e acessível, a futura Web tem que ser sustentável, interativa, e transparente. Conteúdo e software de ferramentas tem que ser abertamente acessíveis e compatíveis.”
In the context of software the Open Source principle was devised. Open Source means that the source code of software is freely accessible to everyone. Open Source was introduced, so that software developers do not have to begin all over again when they are writing new software, but can build on existing works.
To ensure this principle the GNU General Public License (GPL) was defined. Software under this license can be used and extended by everyone. The Open Source approach in software explicitly also allows commercial use. Its success is even largely dependent on this option. Open Content rests on the same basic idea as Open Source software: it should also be allowed to use freely written works, movies and multimedia works. The by far best known option to license content as Open Content and hence allows free use, is the Creative Commons (CC) set of public licenses.
O Creative Commons foi desenvolvido em 2001 como uma iniciativa do professor de Direito Lawrence Lessig na Universidade Stanford. Seu objetivo é prover licenças compreensivas para a disponibilização pública de conteúdo para todos, e então extender os bens comuns culturais, ou fazê-los possíveis em primeiro lugar.
Em vez do princípio usual da legislação de direitos autorais, aonde todos os direitos são reservados pelo autor, o uso dessas licenças apenas reserva certos direitos. O conteúdo é feito disponível ao público para uso. Creative Commons não entra em conflito com a legislação vigente, mas foi construído com base nela. Sem a legislação de direitos autorais a publicação não funcionaria mesmo. Conteúdo protegido por direitos autorais, como filmes, textos e imagens, podem ser usadas livremente por meios de tal licença.
2. Por que conteúdo é posto sob uma licença CC? - Para fazê-lo mais usável.
Many creatives want their texts, their music or movies to be used by as many people as possible (distribution of works is de jure also a type of usage). They have an interest in the free exchange of information. Especially educational content is created with the aim to reach as many students as possible. In this case, any legal restriction is counter-productive.
Here, the most severe restriction of all is to do nothing. What sounds paradox reflects the legal default: "All rights reserved". Whoever creates something new, but does not elaborate if and how his works can be used, is assumed to say "Nobody is allowed to use my content". The CC licenses therefore provide a simple solution to express the desire to share and say "Everybody is allowed to use my content under the following terms and conditions".
The straightforwardness and comprehensibility of the CC licenses has contributed greatly to their widespread use. They are also legally compliant and adapted internationally to the particularities of the different legal systems. People who use CC licenses often do this with the intent to have their works used in social, cultural and educational institutions.
CC licenses that contain the NC module, which allows only a free, non-commercial use, are often considered as a counter model to a world where even charitable or not-for-profit institutions are charged for every single usage. An example for this are the license fee claims for copying and distributing singing sheets in kindergartens, which have caused public outrage. However, by existing law, the claims are justified. By applying a CC license, many authors want to dissociate themselves from these practices. The choice of the NC module is often also a statement against a style of profiteering deemed inappropriate.
However, not every type of commercial use is negative. Quite the contrary – it is neither amoral nor detrimental to the community when content is also distributed by those who have a financial interest. Often, the success of cultural and educational work depends highly on existing commercial usages.
3. Por que existem diferentes licenças CC? - Licenças CC refletem os diferentes interesses dos autores.
Comum à todas as variantes de licença CC é a mentalidade de que o uso de conteúdo deve ser facilitado. Mas criativos, autores, diretores e músicos não tem todos a mesma compreensão de qual uso de seus trabalhos ele querem permitir.
The six different variants of CC are answering to these demands. They offer a flexible tool to tie the usage to certain conditions. A good example is the question, if the authors want to allow editing and remixing of their works. For some, it is crucial that their work remains unchanged. These creators can ensure that by applying the No Derivatives module (ND for short), and still allow other usage.
Others are interested in having their work used in remixes, collages and mashups. They consider the creation of content merely as a transitional stage in a process. Their own content is based on the old and shall be developed into newer works. Those who assign a CC license out of this mindset will not choose the No Derivatives restriction.
If you hold the Open Content principle very dear, you can express through the Share-Alike module (SA) that your content may be edited and distributed, but only under the same (license) terms. It thus remains freely accessible.
Some creatives may want to exclude the commercial usage of their content. To address this demand, each of the license types can be extended with the module "Non-commercial use only" (NC). However, this is not advisable in every case, since it restricts many usage rights which may actually be in the interest of the creator or rights owner of the work.
4. How does the NC module affect the way content can be distributed? – NC-licensed content cannot be distributed as widely and easily.
If you mark your content as NC, it cannot be included in free knowledge databases like Wikipedia, in some kind of open media archives and in Open Source projects. It is often a commercial use that helps not-for-profit initiatives to have their breakthrough.
The Wikipedia DVD which was produced commercially by Directmedia has greatly increased the popularity of Wikipedia. The same goes for the inclusion into commercial repositories – both are legally commercial usages and would not be allowed if the NC module was included.
In the context of education and training, a great number of institutions depend on their own revenues, as they are not (to the full extent) publicly funded. The dependency on course fees leads to their classification as commercial. They are therefore not allowed to use content marked with a CC license that includes the NC module, at least not without asking for permission of the author.
Even the usage in many blogs becomes illegal under the NC condition. Many bloggers display advertisements to lower their hosting costs or have an additional income. Therefore, the usage in these blogs is no longer – or at least not unambiguously – non-commercial.
5. What is commercial use? – Any use, that is primarily directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
When hearing about commercial use, you would often think of multinational companies like Microsoft or Shell, of stock trading, quick money or profiteering. The term "commercial use" however contains no moral evaluation of the business conduct of the respective institutions or persons, but merely describes that they are obtaiting a commercial advantage and possibly aim for a financial remuneration. And that is necessary for anyone who is not fully financed by public funds or private donations.
It is evidently commercial usage if a company uses an image or a text on their company website. It is also commercial use if an image is printed in a book that is published by a publishing house, entirely independent of whether the author receives a remuneration or possibly even has to pay a printing fee to make the publication possible. The publishing house acts with a commercial interest in either case.
A more difficult decision is whether private blogs act with commercial interest, if they (or their hosting service) display advertisements and achieve revenues. These revenues are often minimal and cover barely the hosting costs. There are good arguments against classifying these undertakings as predominantly aimed at a monetary compensation, and therefore allow to call them noncommercial. The distinction is difficult, though, and many cases are disputed.
To stay with the example of the private blog: At which point does a blog lose its non-commercial nature? Already if the advertisement revenue surpasses the operational costs? Or when the first penny is earned? Or only when an "appreciable" income is generated?
Out of precaution, this difficult distinction will often lead the responsible party to not make use of CC licensed content, when the license contains the NC module. Even where the usage would actually be acceptable as non-commercial.
Another approach to distinguish commercial from non-commercial use could be to evaluate not the specific usage, but the type of user. Then you would only have to assess whether the user or institution – as a whole – can be considered commercial. Public schools and museums could then be classified as non-commercial based on their not-for-profit mandate, and one would not have to inspect the individual use cases for their commercial nature.
Unfortunately, the NC module does not make it this easy, since it explicitly mentions the acts that have to be non-commercial. Hence we have to assume a commercial act if, for example, content is sold in a museum shop which is aimed at generating revenue, regardless of the legal status of the shop and the not-for-profit status of the museum.
Completely irrelevant for the distinction between commercial and non-commercial use is, whether the user is even financially able to pay license fees or if they would pay for usage rights in comparable situations. A charitable fund, for example, that uses a picture within their not-for-profit mandate, is considered non-commercial under the NC license terms even if it disposes of considerable means and would pay photographers in a similar situation.
But there are very few not-for-profit institutions these days that have adequate funding and do not depend on additional revenues – which again places them into the gray area of our attempted distinction. To completely avoid the NC module and its restrictions would avoid these uncertainties.
6. Can a CC license with the NC module prevent my content from being used by radicals or extremists? – No. Extremists want to change society, not make profit.
Radicals and extremists follow a political agenda. Their objectives are at the same time not necessarily commercial, not aimed at a business advantage or financial remuneration, but at political and social changes. Radical political and religious extremists are often organised in non-economic associations. Hence, a NC licensing can in a way even privilege the usage of content by extremists.
In other terms: A scientist who intends to publish a study of political extremism with a publishing house will not be allowed to use the content, if it is protected by the NC module against commercial use, because the publisher is acting with commercial interest. An extremist group, however, which formally acts as an association is well allowed to use the same content under the NC terms.
An equally effective yet often more efficient way to prevent content from being used with financial intentions is the Share Alike (SA) module. It allows the publication of adaptations only under the same or similar licenses.
Companies or private actors who want to appropriate creative content can usually achieve this goal relatively easily by editing the work and restricting the use of the edited version based on a separate new copyright it carries. The Share Alike module in the Creative Commons license set can prevent that. All adaptations must be published under the same license as the original content. This means that under the restrictions set by CC, the new content remains as freely accessible as the original content.
Furthermore, when the edit consists in enhancing own content with freed-up external CC-SA content, the CC-SA license works in a contagious or viral way: the newly created work (the edited version) as a whole can only be published under the same license. This alone prevents many companies from appropriating free content which is licensed under Share Alike. It would require them to release their own reproduction, advertisement materials (or whatever the end result might be used for) to the public under the same Share Alike license – and that is one thing most companies, especially larger ones, are not willing to do.
At the same time the Share Alike module – as opposed to the NC module – does not have the negative effect of hindering the distribution of content (in blogs for example) in general. Quite the opposite: with the Share Alike license all edits are under a CC license and the adaptations can thus be used afterwards not only by the editor, but by any third party.
8. Can NC-licensed content be used in the Wikipedia project? – No. Wikipedia contents are being used commercially.
One of the reasons for the widespread and intense usage of Wikipedia is that its contents may be used commercially. Otherwise it would be prohibited for major news sources or other commercial websites to use Wikipedia content verbatim without payment and without asking for permission.
Wikipedia benefits greatly from the commercial use of their content. They are integrated tightly with several search engines, which further the distribution of Wikipedia content, and hence the knowledge compiled by collaboration. The operation of a search engine is an undoubtebly commercial enterprise aimed at profits.
Another example for commercial usage which supports Wikipedia, is the distribution of the DVD versions of Wikipedia, such as the German version produced by the Berlin-based company Directmedia. Within a period of short time this DVD became a bestseller – because of its low price tag and a software with extended search functions.
A prerequisite for creating a Wikipedia DVD was that Directmedia was able to use its contents simply because it is allowed by the license. Furthermore, the project encouraged to sort out incomplete articles, so that they would not end up in the DVD project. Finally, the Wikipedians helped to make the data indexable and sortable.
In return, Directmedia donated one Euro per sold DVD to the German Wikipedia and inflated the Wikimedia image archive with a content donation of 10,000 reproductions of public domain artworks. The business concept of the Wikipedia DVD worked because the software added new features and made the content more attractive, but also because it used a different medium.
Even if you often get to hear that the difference between online and offline is fading, the traditional lexicon and reference format of the DVD appealed to a different target group than the Internet encyclopedia was able to attain. By this process, new readers could be interested in Wikipedia. But all of this was a commercial act, which would not have been permitted if the license that is used by default in Wikipedia would contain the NC module.
9. Can you release NC-licensed content specifically and separately for Wikipedia despite the NC restrictions? – No. The accessibility rules of Wikipedia must not become too complex.
Wikipedia rejects separate side agreements – just as all other initiatives and projects that work on the free content principles. Otherwise, that third parties which want to collaborate with Wikipedia could be hindered and harmed.
These are, for example, local initiatives, which want to use Wikipedia content in local newspapers, as well as search engines and press services wanting to integrate Wikipedia content. Each of these would have to pay close attention as to which content is freely accessible and which is subject to individual side agreements – an additional effort that would suffocate many cooperations.
Em Maio de 2005, o fundador da Wikipédia Jimmy Wales consequentemente anunciou que conteúdo que só pode ser usado não-comercialmente ou só pode ser usado com aprovação separada, não é permitida na Wikipédia e tem que ser deletada.
10. O módulo NC previne uso comercial? - Sim, mas frequentemente em todos os lugares errados.
The NC restriction in CC licenses does indeed prohibit commercial usage, but – as any clause in any legal contract – does not in itself guarantee that others abide by this prohibition. Just as in many other areas of copyright law, breaches of the restrictions imposed by CC licenses are common. The NC module is no exception.
Você deve considerar que muitas companhias veem brechas na legislação de direitos autorais como um mero risco financeiro, e podem intencionalmente desafiar suas restrições. Vendo desta perspectivam, o módulo NC dificulta exatamente aquelas companhias e instituições que mais respeitam as leis de direitos autorais. Isso inclui instituições públicas que cooperam com parceiros comerciais, mas também databases de conhecimento como a Wikipédia, arquivos de mídia aberta ou projetos de Fonte Aberta.
All these projects, initiatives and institutions which explicitly endorse free access to knowledge are subject to closer scrutiny to not breach the restrictive copyright regulations. In order not to endanger their work, they have to study license agreements with the utmost care. Since the possibility of a commercial use cannot be ruled out altogether – and often it should not be excluded since these initiatives are interested in spreading knowledge – content licensed with a NC condition will not be used by them.
Isso cria um paradoxo: a restrição NC é mais minuciosamente atendida aonde suas consequências são menos intencionadas.
== 11. Eu estou pronto para agir contra o uso comercial do meu conteúdo? - Se não, você deveria considerar não usar o módulo NC em primeiro lugar.
Restringir uma licença Creative Commons por meio de módulo NC só é razoável se o autor também está disposto a agir contra o uso comercial, por exemplo numa corte.
That does not mean that you have to fight every single breach of copyright. Breaches of copyright law are common, and CC licensed content is no exception – and the decision for or against a legal dispute will always depend on many considerations.
However, if you do not intend to act against commercial use anyway, the NC license variant will only discourage those who observe the law meticulously, especially if they are not perfectly certain whether they are considered non-commercial. These are usually the users that you do not want to scare off.
12. Conteúdo licenciado em NC pode ser impresso em jornais? - Não. Jornais são em todos os casos usuários comerciais.
Jornais são operados para gerar receita; eles objetivam vantagem comercial e compensação financeira. Esse é um fato desrespeitoso ao fundamental direito à liberdade de imprensa e influencia grandemente os jornais em opinião pública e debate.
Furthermore, the classification of newspapers as commercial is valid even when they are – such as in the case of advertisement journals – distributed for free. These papers are financed by advertisement, and thus operate for a monetary advantage.
Of course, a CC licensed content can be printed in newspapers, despite the NC module, if the author explicitly agrees. This equally applies to any other commercial use. The great advantage of the CC standard licenses is, however, that you do not have to negotiate an agreement in every single case. This effort-saving effect of standard licensing is lost if the NC module demands case-by-case negotiations.
13. Can NC-licensed content be used in schools, training and universities? – No, not everywhere.
Depending on the legal status of the provider, a school, trade school or university can be classified either as commercial or non-commercial. Today, a large number of schools, universities, training centres professional schools, scientific and cultural institutes are not exclusively publicly funded and are not exclusively financed by donations or endowment capital. These educational institutions depend on own revenues. By this orientation, to generate own revenue, their enterprise is aimed at monetary compensation to a degree that can no longer be considered negligible.
The less public funding an institution gets, the higher is the necessity to acquire additional revenue by commercial means. This puts educational institutions, that already are in a difficult position as they do not have sufficient public funding, in further disadvantage, as they can not make use of CC licensed content containing the NC module.
14. How do you classify NC-licensed content that is first used at school, but later outside of school? – If used outside of school, the use is often to be considered commercial.
The use of CC licensed content with the NC module is usually not an issue if it happens strictly within public schools. These schools have an educational mandate and do not follow commercial goals. A different case is that of private schools which do generate revenue (see question 13).
Therefore, a wide spectrum of possible uses of NC-licensed content is opened within those schools that would otherwise classify as commercial. Students and professors may print texts, play songs; Students may – as long as the No Derivatives (ND) module is not applied and thus prevents it – create mashups and collages and edit the content. Even though the results are unproblematic in a school setting they become problematic outside of the school premises.
If for example the local newspaper wants to report on the results of a student competition, they cannot just reprint the collage with the CC licensed contents, if the NC module is included. This would require the permission of the original author.
Since the CC-NC license makes the school a location of free access to copyrighted content, many students gain a false sense of security if they use the same content outside of school. In this case, the threshold of commercial use is easily breached. If for example such content is uploaded to social networks on the Internet, the mere possibility of access by third parties (for example other people in the social network) would constitute a breach of the NC module in the license, since the hosting providers and operators of social networks usually act with commercial interest.
Although the actual breach will, in these cases, be effected by the respective hosting providers or operator, these companies usually have clauses in their usage agreements that allow them to claim recompensation for incurred damages from their users.
This is one more reason why you should not use the NC restrictions on content for educational purposes. Especially students should not be put into the situation that their unproblematic conduct within school leads to a carelessness that puts them in conflict with the law outside of school.
Now, as a creative professional you could take up the position that you will not pursue or hang a lantern on such unwanted breaches of your licenses. However, then you should ask yourself why you had to choose the NC module in the first place (see question 11).
15. How does NC affect mashups? – Not all CC licenses can be combined with each other.
Works that are licensed under CC-BY-SA (Attribution, Share-Alike) license can only be combined and used with works that bear the same license or the freer license type CC-BY (Attribution). The combination of CC-licensed content with other combinations of the different modules, especially those without NC module, is not permitted.
Thus, severe problems are caused by the fact that licenses have to be compatible with each other if you want to combine contents. This applies especially to mashups, which originate from a culture of free manipulation of content, and consider CC licensing as supporting their cultural values. In fact, however, many license combinations are not compatible, especially NC licenses cannot be combined with other licenses that do not have this restriction.
Furthermore, mashups are often created without the intent of financial compensation, which initially makes the use of NC-licensed content legitimate. Later, those mashups can become popular and are republished in blogs and on other platforms. This puts their makers, who legitimately used NC-licensed content when making the mashup, in a legal gray area where the usage can be attributed a commercial character.
A commercial use is not by definition an abusive use. Wherever publicity and attention for the content are the primary goal, any use of the content usually benefits the author, as it increases their popularity.
Especially content that is used in the context of public education initiatives should be permitted to be used in as many distribution channels as possible, as a maximum outreach is the primary goal.
CC does not affect the personality rights of the author. A user must not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the CC licensor. This "no endorsement" clause, as it is called in the US, is a standard provision in many open content license models.
18. Can the NC module still have any advantages? – Yes, but less often than you would think.
For private individuals, there is usually no good reason for a restriction to non-commercial use only. In many cases there is very little realistic chance that a commercial user is willing to pay money for using the content. A CC license has the main goal to make the content as widely spread as possible. For achieving that the NC module is often a hindrance.
In turn, anyone who has no intention of seeing the content widespread without strict control over it, can achieve this goal by excluding commercial uses. CC licenses with the NC module can make sense for publishers, whose business model is based on the traditional "all rights reserved", who invest considerably in a publication and hold their own distribution channels.
Such publishers have no particular interest in allowing competitors to gain profit from their investment. The benefits of commercial use by third parties, namely a better and faster dissemination, is less important for them because they maintain their own, often costly distribution operations.
However, despite focussing on a business model that is based on the kind of exclusivity offered by classic copyright law, these publishers can have an interest in their content being used in at least the non-commercial areas of education and science, as this may boost sales via classical distribution.
19. Sob qual licença o conteúdo da Wikipédia é publicado? - A licença CC-BY-SA.
In order to increase the commons of free knowledge and culture, Wikipedia requires every author to allow the general public a free reuse of their articles. This is achieved by a Creative Commons license that includes the Attribution (BY) and Share Alike (SA) modules, meaning that the license requires giving credit to the author and distributing any edited versions under the same terms.
Texts that were not created by the authors themselves, or texts that originated in a collaboration, may also only enter Wikipedia if they are put under a CC-BY-SA license or a compatible license.
Até 2009 a Wikipédia tem usado a GNU Licença de Documentação Livre (GFDL, em inglês) pela iniciativa GNU. A Free Software Foundation tinha originalmente desenvolvido essa licença para documentação de software, por isso era muito complicada e não servia da melhor maneira para a Wikipédia.
Nonetheless, the GFDL open content licenses did not have to be abandoned when Wikipedia was transitioning to a CC-BY-SA license. The old license is still used to avoid possible contradictions. Commercial use of content is explicitly permitted by both licenses. The Share Alike module ensures that content cannot be taken from the world-wide pool of freely accessible knowledge by editing and republishing, but that it remains a part of free knowledge and free culture.
Just as the NC module, the No Derivatives (ND) module is also not permitted for Wikipedia articles. Wikipedia thrives from allowing its articles to be corrected, extended and edited by others. Therefore ND is not compatible with the Wikipedia concept.
As licenças públicas desenvolvidas por Creative Commons (CC) são ferramentas que fazem trabalhos criativos disponíveis para livre uso sob certas condições. Como donos de direitos tem diferentes motivos e necessidades, CC oferece seis variantes diferentes de licenças;
Algumas das variantes de licença mais populares incluem a condição de que trabalhos licenciados não podem ser usados comercialmente. Isso tem ido além e frequentemente tem consequências não intencionadas para a disseminação dos respectivos trabalhos e algumas vezes até frustra o que o licenciante quer atingir ao escolher uma licença CC.
Esse folheto quer oferecer informação sobre consequências, riscos e efeitos colaterais de variantes de licenças CC restritivas que não permitem uso comercial.