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Learning and Evaluation/Archive/Learning modules/3Avoid loaded questions

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Part 1: Introduction

Why Survey?
Why Surveys Are Useful
Survey instruments
Types of information
Attributes - a special case
Survey Objective and Planning

Part 2: Reliability & Validity

Reliability & Validity
Face Validity
Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Construct Validity

Part 3: Question Construction

Writing Good Questions
Questions from Existing Surveys
Constructing your own Questions
Be Specific
Be Concise
Avoid Double Negatives
Minimize Social Desirability Bias
Avoid Double-barreled questions
Avoid abbreviations, jargon, technical terms, or slang
Avoid leading questions
Avoid loaded questions
Use appropriate wording
Ask useful questions
Rely on second-hand data sparsely
Use caution when asking personal questions

Part 4: Response Options

Question types
Dichotomous pairs
Multiple choice
Check all that apply
Choosing response options

Part 5: Questionnaire structure

Important considerations
Questions order
Additional Resources

  Wikimedia Training Designing Effective Questions Menu

Avoid loaded questions

Assessing support for travel expense reimbursement for Wikimania Conference presenters.

Very Poor
Are you in favor of reasonable reimbursements for travel expenses to Wikimania for generous conference presenters, who take time out of their schedules to attend?
As this example shows, adjectives tend to make questions loaded. "Reasonable” turns this question into a loaded question, because if a respondent does not agree, then they are "unreasonable." The word "generous" implies that the presenter's time is more valuable and they should be reimbursed.
Are you in favor of reimbursements for travel expenses to Wikimania for conference presenters?
Although "reasonable" was removed, the question retains some bias towards answering "in favor of" rather than against.
To what extent do you feel that Wikimania conference presenters should or should not be eligible to have their travel expenses reimbursed?
This final question puts funding into the question, so that participants or members realize that funds need to be sacrificed elsewhere in order to obtain laptops.