Learning and Evaluation/Archive/Learning modules/3Survey instruments

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Part 1: Introduction

Welcome!
Why Survey?
Why Surveys Are Useful
Constructs
Operationalize
Survey instruments
Types of information
Attributes - a special case
Survey Objective and Planning

Part 2: Reliability & Validity

Reliability & Validity
Reliability
Validity
Face Validity
Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Construct Validity

Part 3: Question Construction

Writing Good Questions
Questions from Existing Surveys
Constructing your own Questions
Be Specific
Be Concise
Avoid Double Negatives
Minimize Social Desirability Bias
Avoid Double-barreled questions
Avoid abbreviations, jargon, technical terms, or slang
Avoid leading questions
Avoid loaded questions
Use appropriate wording
Ask useful questions
Rely on second-hand data sparsely
Use caution when asking personal questions

Part 4: Response Options

Question types
Fill-in-the-blank
Dichotomous pairs
Multiple choice
Check all that apply
Ranking
Scales
Choosing response options

Part 5: Questionnaire structure

Important considerations
Questions order
Additional Resources
Feedback

  Wikimedia Training Designing Effective Questions Menu

Survey Questionnaire

Construct

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Operationalize

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Survey Questionnaire


Once a construct is operationalized, and proxy measures identified (i.e. the question objectives from the previous slide), we can develop the survey questions. The survey questionnaire is a collection of proxy measures—in the form of questions and response options—that measure the target constructs (i.e. interest in editing Wikipedia).


Example
The two survey objectives below are followed by a set of example survey questions that are proxy indicators for a person's interest in editing Wikipedia:
(a) Behavior editing Wikipedia
How many times have you edited Wikipedia in the previous two weeks?
How frequently do you edit Wikipedia?
(b) Intentions toward editing Wikipedia
To what extent, if any, do you enjoy editing Wikipedia?
To what extent, if any, do you plan to edit Wikipedia in the next month?


What is the point for all of this?
It is important to stress the need to set survey objectives before writing any questions. Without having set objectives, one is more likely to write irrelevant questions that will not get the information desired from program participants.