Guidelines on potential conflicts of interest/zh

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一般而言,导致潜在利益冲突的个人利益管理不善会在声誉及经济上损害我们的运动资源。拟定的指引旨在鼓励就申请运动资源,全面披露人们的个人利益及经济利益。这些指引帮助确保这些运动资源(如补助金、员工时间、奖学金、商标许可、差旅报销、助学金、就业、以及会议资源)用于实现我们的使命。 这些指引适用于任何运动实体、组织、协会或个人(如维基媒体基金会、分会、专题组织、运动合伙人、用户群、维基爱古迹 (Wiki Loves Monuments)、GLAM 组织以及常驻维基人 (Wikipedians in Residence))对资源的申请。这些指引并不全面或详尽。指引的目的是为支持现有的运动价值及利益冲突政策,这一政策可能要求回避或以其他方式管理冲突。[1]





Geoff Brigham

  1. 举例而言,在WMF理事会的组织最佳实践决议案中,鼓励“更多发达组织”“采用核心管理政策,包括理事会和员工需要至少披露所有潜在利益冲突的行为准则”。当然,运动组织能够随意采用更严格且更合适的利益冲突规则,该等规则胜过这些提议指引的最低标准。


RESOLVED, that the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation hereby approves and adopts the Wikimedia Guidelines on the Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest in Requesting Movement Resources as set out below. These guidelines are meant to complement the Resolution on Organizational Best Practices, passed by this Board on March 31, 2012. With the approval of the Executive Director, the General Counsel may modify these guidelines from time to time with 15-day notice to the community. Both Wikimedia organizations and community members are encouraged to adhere to these guidelines in their requests for, use of, and allocation of resources belonging to the Wikimedia movement.

This resolution will be effective as of XXXX.


Five Wikimedia guidelines on the disclosure of potential and actual conflicts of interest in requesting movement resources


Mismanaged personal interests resulting in potential conflicts of interest can hurt our movement, both in reputation and financial ways. The five below guidelines – which include a requirement to "disclose actively" potential or actual conflicts of interest – seek to promote honesty and transparency in requesting and allocating movement resources. These resources belong to the movement and must always be used to support its mission.

Movement resources include, for example, grants, staff time, scholarships, trademark licenses, fellowships, employment opportunities, travel reimbursements, and conference resources. The guidelines apply to requests for these resources from movement entities, groups, associations or persons, such as the Wikimedia Foundation, chapters, thematic organizations, movement partners, user groups, Wiki Loves Monuments, GLAM organizations, and Wikipedians in Residence.


The guidelines are not comprehensive or exhaustive. They support existing conflicts of interest and other governance policies, which may require recusal or other ways of managing the conflict.


Guideline one
Disclose actively if you are receiving payment or anything of value from a person or organization that may benefit from your request, use, or allocation of movement resources.
Guideline two
Disclose actively if you are requesting, using, or allocating movement resources that may benefit your family member, spouse, partner, business associate, significant other, close friend, or their organizations or employers.
Guideline three
Answer fully and honestly any relevant and appropriate questions when requesting, using, or allocating movement resources.
Guideline four
Disclose actively if your request, use, or allocation of movement resources could be perceived by others or the public as improper. Even the perception of a conflict or unauthorized personal gain needs to be disclosed.
Guideline five
Do not request, use, or allocate movement resources for unauthorized personal gain.

Definition of "Disclose Actively"

Under the guidelines, a person should "disclose actively" a potential or actual conflict of interest. To "disclose actively" means (1) to report the conflict to the decision-maker or supervisor in charge of the allocation of the movement resources in question; and (2) to do so explicitly and in advance of any serious discussion or decision about the allocation or use of those movement resources.



  • Example one: A Wikimedian asks to post a blog on the Wikimedia Foundation’s site, which will involve work by the Foundation’s communications team. The blog will feature a specific artist. The Wikimedian is also employed by that artist’s estate. The Wikimedian should actively disclose this paid relationship right away in her first contact with the communications team. The team can assess independently whether the blog reflects an appropriate use of Foundation resources and whether it should disclose the Wikimedian’s interest.
  • Example two: A community member applies for funding from a local chapter to work on a photography project for Wikimedia Commons. His funded work on the project would result in his travelling to a city where he plans to visit his significant other. The community member should disclose this relationship and potential benefit when he makes the request. The chapter’s conflict of interest policy may require an independent review of the need for the trip. The potential conflict is that the community member may be seeking the grant to finance the trip to see a significant other as opposed to the real purposes of the grant – to photograph at a location of interest for the Wikimedia movement. Disclosure allows the grantor to undertake an independent assessment and determine if the proposed grant project – including its selected location – is made in the best interest of the movement.
  • Example three: In a request for a grant from the FDC, a chapter trustee has a potential financial conflict of interest. Though her conflict of interest is stated on the local chapter’s blog and she believes the FDC may be aware of it, she nevertheless should actively disclose the potential conflict to the FDC to ensure that the FDC is aware of the conflict.
  • Example four: A chapter is considering whether to make a grant to a consulting firm for an open source project. A chapter trustee has an ownership interest in the consulting firm. The firm and trustee must disclose this ownership interest to the chapter when making the grant request. The chapter may then manage or resolve the conflict under its own conflict of interest policy.
  • Example five: A member of the FDC committee receives a gift of valuable World Cup tickets from a trustee of a chapter that is applying for the next round of funding. The FDC committee member should disclose the gift. The FDC should manage the conflict according to its conflict of interest policy and best practices.
  • Example six: The board of a thematic organization decides to hire an outside accountant to help with the bookkeeping. A board member wishes to hire his sister, who is a certified public accountant and is willing to offer her services at a reduced non-profit rate. The board member must reveal this personal connection to the rest of the board before proceeding with the hiring process. The rest of the board may then treat the conflict pursuant to its own conflict of interest policies, and independently assess the proposed hire.


  1. Note: As a general matter, a conflict of interest normally does not arise simply because an individual previously had received a grant or authorized reimbursement from the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF) or a WMF-approved chapter or thematic organization. This is so however only when that grant or reimbursement was used in support of the Wikimedia mission without personal gain and in accordance with the established policy of the organization. As a matter of good practice, applicants for movement resources should disclose whether they are trustees, officers, employees, contractors, fellows, representatives, or members of WMF, chapters, or thematic organizations when requesting movement resources.

  2. A passive notice about a conflict on a user page, for example, would not constitute adequate disclosure with respect to a fellowship grant. The user instead must immediately notify the decision-maker about the conflict in the user's application for the fellowship grant.