Legal/Políticas legales

From Meta, a Wikimedia project coordination wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page is a translated version of the page Legal/Legal Policies and the translation is 35% complete.

Other languages:
English • ‎español • ‎français • ‎العربية • ‎مصرى • ‎हिन्दी • ‎中文

POLÍTICAS LEGALES DE LA FUNDACIÓN WIKIMEDIA

Preguntas frecuentes

¿Para quién son estas políticas?
Estas políticas son para la oficina del asesor jurídico de la Fundación Wikimedia, pero comprendemos que muchos de los asuntos que tratamos pueden resultar de interés a la comunidad. Por ello compartimos estas políticas con esta.
¿Es esta la versión final?
Sí y no. Estas políticas son la redacción definitiva. No obstante entendemos que la política debe representar un documento vivo que corregiremos y actualizaremos mientras tratamos con nuevos asuntos jurídicos. Algunas buenas ideas que se han realizado en la página de discusión necesitan una mayor reflexión y puede que sean incluídas en la política en un futuro.
¿Por qué escribís estas políticas ahora?
Hemos desarrollado un número de prácticas internas. Creemos que es apropiado, ahora, escribir esas prácticas para asegurar un conocimiento institucional y para que sirvan como unos cimientos sobre los que podamos desarrollar nuestras mejores prácticas.
¿Qué temas se abordan en las políticas?
Se abordan un amplio rango de temas: ley aplicable, responsabilidad por las ediciones, solicitudes de remoción de contenido al amparo de la ley estadounidense DMCA, secretos industriales, pornografía infantil, "fair use", acoso, requerimientos judiciales de información, licencias y marcas.
¿Son estas políticas de cumplimiento obligatorio?
No. Dado que estas políticas son de aplicación a los empleados de la Fundación, la asesoría jurídica se reserva el derecho de desviarse de las políticas dependiendo de las circunstancias, incluyendo los desarrollos legales y legislativos. Las políticas no constituyen un contrato o cualquier otro tipo de compromiso por parte de la Fundación Wikimedia.

Introducción

Estas políticas se han establecido por y para la asesoría jurídica para asegurarse en establecer una consistencia en el actuar interno y externo de los problemas que tienen repercusiones jurídicas. Estas políticas tienen el ánimo de ser documentos vivos y serán, por tanto, actualizadas según sea necesario basándose en la experiencia y las necesidades del departamento.

Si tienes cualquier duda acerca de la aplicación de estas políticas, por favor contacta con la asesoría jurídica de la Fundación.

Fecha de la última revisión: 9 de febrero de 2012

Aviso: Este documento no constituye consejo legal alguno. Solo pretende documentar ciertos procedimientos relevantes para la asesoría jurídica. Estas políticas están sujetas a modificación sin aviso previo y no pueden ser consideradas en ningún caso un contrato o acuerdo vinculante. Cualquier excepción hecha a las políticas o en su aplicación no constituye ningún tipo de precedente vinculante para decisiones futuras.

Ley aplicable

La ley aplicable a los proyectos de la Fundación Wikimedia es la de los Estados Unidos de América. La Fundación Wikimedia es una sociedad constituida en los Estados Unidos de América y, por ello, se rige por las leyes de los Estados Unidos de América.

Como regla general, las leyes del Estado de Florida (donde la Fundación Wikimedia fue registrada) y las leyes del Estado de California (donde se encuentra su sede social) deben ser examinadas cuando se trata de determinar cuestiones sobre cumplimiento legal. Las leyes de otros Estados pueden ser aplicables, pero ello ha de ser evaluado caso por caso por la asesoría jurídica.

En el plano internacional, las leyes de otros países pueden resultar relevantes, pero esa determinación también precisa de una determinación casuística.

Como regla general, la asesoría jurídica advierte que los editores que no cumplen o infringen las leyes locales lo hacen bajo su propio riesgo y responsabilidad. Véase el apartado destinado a tratar la responsabilidad por las ediciones.

Nuestra misión es la de "empoderar y comprometer a las personas alrededor del mundo para recopilar y desarrollar contenido educativo bajo licencia libre o en dominio público, para diseminarlo de manera efectiva y global". Aunque la Fundación Wikimedia en ningún caso invita a que se vulneren las leyes, debemos ver cualquier restricción legal que previene nuestra misión con un sano escepticismo.

En su autonomía, las comunidades han determinado que determinadas leyes son relevantes para sus proyectos como políticas. Por ejemplo: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Licensing#Country-specific_laws ("generalmente, la política que se aplica en Commons es la de permitir solamente imágenes que puedan ser usadas en todos los países o, al menos, una gran mayoría.")("La manera más segura de aplicar la legislación internacional sobre derechos de autor es la de considerar las leyes de todas las jurisdicciones que sean relevantes y, a continuación, usar la más restrictiva de todas ellas para determinar si algo está todavía sujeto a derechos de autor o no.").

Las reglas sobre elección de ley se establecen como políticas por la comunidad editorial de cada proyecto en particular y como regla general deben ser respetadas. Dichas reglas, sin embargo, pueden llevar a adoptar unas políticas mucho más restrictivas que lo necesario para cumplir con los principios de derecho internacional. En resumen, esas reglas representan decisiones editoriales importantes sobre cómo gestionar el proyecto, pero pueden no reflejar la interpretación que los tribunales de justicia emplean cuando aplican la ley. La asesoría jurídica, por tanto retiene, a su discreción, y cuando fuere necesario, la potestad de emplear una aproximación distinta en la defensa de la Fundación Wikimedia.

En cualquier caso, los proyectos deben seguir la ley de los Estados Unidos para determinar, al menos, un mínimo de restricción. Si la comunidad adopta una política menos restrictiva que incumple con las leyes de los Estados Unidos de América, la Fundación Wikimedia debe intentar cambiar esas políticas para que cumplan con el Derecho de los Estados Unidos de América. En resumen: ninguna política puede evitar las restricciones que impongan las leyes de los Estados Unidos de América.[1]

Ejemplo: la Wikipedia en italiano incluye una política por la que se pretende en exclusiva la aplicación de la legislación italiana en materia de marcas, sin tener en cuenta las leyes de los Estados Unidos de América. Si la legislación italiana es más protectora en materia de marcas que la ley estadounidense entonces la Fundación Wikimedia no intervendría. Pero en caso contrario, si la ley italiana fuese menos restrictiva que la ley estadounidense, entonces la Fundación podría solicitar que la política fuese modificada para que cumpliese con la legislación estadounidense.

Responsabilidad por las ediciones y las contribuciones

Un editor es legalmente responsable de sus ediciones y contribuciones en los proyectos Wikimedia. Los proyectos solo son sitios de alojamiento: la Fundación Wikimedia por norma general no edita, contribuye o revisa el contenido de los sitios. Por ello, la Fundación Wikimedia no es responsable de las ediciones o contribuciones de los editores.[2] Véase, 47 U.S.C. 230

Se recomienda a los editores ejercer la debida cautela y evitar contribuir con cualquier contenido que pueda acarrearles responsabilidad civil o penal, tales como (y sin ánimo de exhaustividad) las infracciones a los derechos de autor, publicar contenido injurioso o calumniante o publicar violaciones a la intimidad.

La Fundación Wikimedia apoya profusamente la libertad de expresión en el mundo. La Fundación Wikimedia, por ende, no está de acuerdo con las leyes de muchos países que restringen el contenido. Dicho esto, los tribunales de justicia de los diferentes países aplican el derecho vigente en el territorio en el que se encuentran. Por esta razón, la Fundación Wikimedia debería advertir a los editores y a los administradores que no cumplen con las leyes vigentes en sus respectivos países que lo hacen por su propia cuenta, riesgo y responsabilidad.

Ejemplo: un editor vive en Irán, donde las leyes son más restrictivas que las estadounidenses por lo que se refiere al contenido de carácter político. Cualquier edición sobre cuestiones políticas se realiza por dicho editor bajo su propia cuenta y riesgo, aunque la Fundación pueda no estar de acuerdo con dichas leyes.

Defensa de los colaboradores

El trabajo de nuestros editores, fotógrafos y otros colaboradores es, desde luego, apreciado por la Fundación Wikimedia y la comunidad. Afortunadamente la gran mayoría de las colaboraciones transcurren sin ningún tipo de incidente de naturaleza legal. En algunas ocasiones, sin embargo, una parte puede amenazar con iniciar acciones judiciales o directamente presentar una demanda. En algunos casos las demandas presentadas no tienen muchas posibilidades de ser estimadas, pero en todo caso han de ser defendidas. Las contribuciones a un proyecto que aparentan ser constructivas y conformes con las políticas del proyecto pueden, de todos modos, poner al colaborador en riesgo de sufrir repercusiones de naturaleza legal.

Como regla general, los editores, fotógrafos y otros colaboradores son responsables de sus propias ediciones y colaboraciones y, por esa razón, son responsable de los gastos de defensa y representación en caso de que se ejercite contra ellos cualquier tipo de acción legal por sus colaboraciones. Los colaboradores deben saber que los litigios son una posibilidad y que deben evitar ponerse a sí mismos en una situación que sobrepase su riesgo personalmente aceptable y tolerable.

The Wikimedia Foundation does not routinely offer financial support to editors, photographers, or other contributors who find themselves in litigation. In certain unusual cases, the Foundation, in its discretion, may consider helping to find financing to pay for a legal defense or to assist in locating pro bono counsel when a contributor has been named as a defendant in a legal action. Such an undertaking may be possible in cases that raise significant issues relating to free speech and that advance the mission "to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally." WMF would give consideration, for example, to requests involving issues that:

  • Raise significant freedom of expression questions that affect the Project's ability to be a neutral source of information, such as true and verifiable statements that are censored under local law (e.g., foreign laws that prohibit truthful information unfavorable to the government);
  • Would expand significantly the breadth of content that would fall under the public domain (e.g., art in public domain); or
  • Would reinforce the enforceability of the Creative Commons and similar free-content licenses (e.g., that Creative Commons license is valid).

To be eligible for any financial or other support, the contributor must have acted in compliance with the WMF Terms of Use, applicable privacy policies, and applicable community and Foundation policies. At its sole discretion, WMF will make the final determination of eligibility and may consider any other relevant facts or circumstances.

If you are a contributor facing serious legal threats or action, you should act quickly in retaining a lawyer to protect all your rights. If you think your case fits the criteria listed above, please feel free to contact legal@wikimedia.org. If you are a user with special user rights (such as Checkuser) who is facing a legal threat due to an action taken within the line of your duties, there may be another program available to help. Contact legal@wikimedia.org for more information.

Caveats: For legal ethical reasons, WMF cannot create an attorney-client or other confidential relationship with contributors, and if any financial or other support were provided it would not establish such a relationship. No one should rely on the possibility of financial or other support or take any action with the expectation of receiving such support. If there were any financial support, it would not include payment of any fines or damages. If any financial or other support were provided it would not create any agency, employee, contractor, or other legal relationship with WMF. If WMF provided any support, WMF would not necessarily be endorsing any activity undertaken by a contributor before or after receipt of support. WMF may change this policy at any time, for any reason, without notice. Any financial support, if given, would be subject to budget constraints.

In cases where the Wikimedia Foundation cannot offer or find financial or other support, editors, photographers, and other contributors may wish to consult legal agencies that provide legal defense at no or reduced cost.

In appropriate cases, the Wikimedia Foundation may support a contributor in non-financial ways, such as public statements of support.

Importantly, the Wikimedia Foundation does not advise the Community to ignore laws that are under challenge.

Example: The Wikimedia Foundation has decided to challenge a copyright law in Spain that affects whether certain art falls into the public domain. Users who are subject to Spanish law should continue to comply with that law while it remains legally valid. This is so even if the Wikimedia Foundation itself is challenging the law.

Acciones de oficina

Office actions are official changes made on behalf of the Wikimedia Foundation by certain authorized members of the office. These are removals of questionable or illegal Project content following complaints. Office actions are performed so that the end result is a legal, policy-compliant article on the subject. For a full explanation of office actions, see: Office actions.

Office actions are extremely rare. Before an office action may be taken, the following requirements must be met:

  • A formal complaint must be filed “off-wiki” (e.g., postal mail, email, telephone, or personal meetings).
  • The complaint must relate to a violation of law that raises significant legal liability if an office action is not taken.
  • Community efforts to delete the offensive material have been unsuccessful (or there is insufficient time for such efforts).

Only certain individuals have authority to initiate an office action. See Office actions. As a general matter, all persons are invited to seek a recommendation from the Office of the General Counsel before proceeding with an office action.

No Editing. Importantly, when undertaking an office action, the authorized employee from the Wikimedia Foundation may only delete content (such as stubbing an article). Generally, that employee should not engage in adding new content or proactive editing of the content.

Acciones de oficina concreta incluyen:


1. DMCA Takedowns. The Office of the General Counsel (OGC) shall have the sole responsibility to authorize a takedown of content due to a DMCA takedown notice. (The Community however is always free to remove infringing content on its own accord.) Such a DMCA takedown may not be reverted.

Before a DMCA takedown notice will be recognized, the complaining copyright holder must substantially comply with all legal requirements of such a notice:

  • A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the copyright owner or exclusive licensee.
  • Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to be infringed. If a notice refers to multiple works posted at a single location, it is sufficient to include a representative list of works infringed at the site.
  • Identification of the material claimed to be infringing together with “information reasonably sufficient to permit the service provider to locate the material.” The notification must also identify the reference or link to the material or activity claimed to be infringing and information “reasonably sufficient” to permit the service provider to locate the reference or link.
  • Information “reasonably sufficient” to permit the service provider to contact the complaining party. Such information may include the complaining party's address, telephone or email address.
  • A statement that the complaining party believes, in good faith, that the copyrighted material identified is being used in a manner that is not authorized by “the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.”
  • A statement that the information in the notification is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that the complaining party is authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.

I. Ballon, E-Commerce & Internet Law, section 4.12[9][B] (from which the above is substantively quoted).

Upon takedown of the content, the Office of the General Counsel should promptly notify the user who had posted the content (through email or notice on the user page) that the content has been removed and that the user may file a counter-notification. That notice will link to a page summarizing DMCA takedown and counter-notice procedures. See, e.g., https://lumendatabase.org/topics/29 & https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Category:DMCA (listing resources under DMCA subtitle). Unfortunately, a user cannot file a counter-notification anonymously.

Should the Wikimedia Foundation receive a counter-notification, the Office of the General Counsel should promptly provide the original complaining party with (1) a copy of any counter-notification and (2) a notice that the removed content will be replaced within ten (10) business days. This provides the original complaining party an opportunity to file suit to obtain an order restraining the infringing activity.

Without notice that a lawsuit has been filed, the Office of the General Counsel will authorize that the removed content be replaced within 10-14 business days following receipt of the counter-notification. Only the Office of the General Counsel may authorize the reposting of the removed content.

Any DMCA takedown should be replaced by a template explaining the action taken. The DMCA takedown notice should be posted on our site. See, e.g., Office actions. The post should include information on how to file a counter-notification, including a link for detailed information on that procedure. See, e.g., https://lumendatabase.org/topics/29 & Office actions (listing resources under DMCA subtitle).

All DMCA takedowns should be forwarded to https://lumendatabase.org.

Repeat Infringers. Pursuant to the DMCA, the Wikimedia Foundation will terminate, in appropriate circumstances, the accounts of repeat infringers.

The Wikimedia Foundation strongly encourages users to file counter-notifications when a DMCA takedown demand is invalid or improper. Successful counter-notifications will not be counted in any determination as to whether a user is a repeat offender.

Example: A user posts a photograph, and a rights-owner files a DMCA takedown notice. The user disagrees and files a counter-notification, and the rights-owner fails to challenge that counter-notification in court. The photograph will be reposted 10-14 days after receipt of the counter-notification. The DMCA takedown will not count against the user in determining repeat infringer status. (The Community, however, has the option to delete the photograph according to their Project policies since those policies may be more stringent than copyright laws.)


2. Knowledge of Copyright Infringement. Apart from the DMCA takedown procedure, the Office of the General Counsel should authorize deletion of content where there is (1) actual knowledge that the content is infringing copyright or (2) awareness of facts or circumstances from which copyright infringing activity is apparent. (17 U.S.C. 512(c)(1)(A)). Pursuant to the DMCA, the Wikimedia Foundation will terminate, in appropriate circumstances, the accounts of repeat infringers. The Community may also remove such infringing material from the Project sites.


3. Trade Secrets. If there is specific and credible knowledge that trade secrets, such as cracks and decryption keys, are on our site, the Office of General Counsel may take an office action and authorize prompt deletion of those secrets. Apart from an office action, the Community may also take down trade secrets as the Community deems appropriate. Notice of such takedowns is not necessary.

El Acto de Secretos de Comercio Uniforme dice que un secreto de comercio incluye:

[I]nformation, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, technique, or process, that ... derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain economic value from its disclosure or use, and is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy.

Under that Act, “misappropriation” includes “disclosure . . . of a trade secret of another without express or implied consent by a person who . . . before a material change of his position, knew or had reason to know that it was a trade secret and that knowledge of it had been acquired by accident or mistake.”

There must be reasonable efforts to keep the information secret before it may constitute a “trade secret.” One legal scholar noted, “the amount of time that a secret is made publicly available online and the location where it is posted should be considered in evaluating whether a disclosure has been made that destroys the trade secret. For example, a brief disclosure in an obscure location that in fact was not widely accessed should not be deemed to destroy the trade secret status of information.” I. Ballon, E-Commerce & Internet Law, Section 10.06. On the other hand, an alleged "trade secret" that has been widely published in multiple media may have lost its requisite secrecy.

In many cases, the verifiability policy may justify independently the deletion of the alleged trade secret because there is no support for it in a reliable published source. See, e.g., :en:Wikipedia:Verifiability|Wikipedia:Verifiability]]. On the other hand, removal generally would be inappropriate with respect to former confidences that are legitimately discussed in reliable, public sources as a matter of general interest.

Example: Without authorization, a user posts the specifications of an upcoming product from his company. There are two reasons why this contribution may be deleted: (1) it constitutes trade secrets; and (2) it is not verifiable (that is, there is no reliable, published source as a reference).


4. Trademark Infringement. If we receive notice of trademark infringement, the Office of the General Counsel may authorize removal of such infringement when the infringement is clear and apparent (like a clear-cut case of piracy) or when otherwise permitted by law. The Community also may review the infringement and determine whether removal is appropriate under applicable law. Notice of such a takedown is not necessary.

Example: A user includes a company logo on his user page that incorrectly proclaims that the company is associated with the user's business. The company contacts the Wikimedia Foundation and presents convincing evidence that the company logo is being misused without authorization. The Office of General Counsel may authorize removal of the company logo from the user page. The Community also may review and determine whether removal is appropriate.

5. Child Pornography. Child pornography must be removed from the site immediately. Generally speaking, child pornography constitutes a photograph or other visual image of a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct.[3]

It is important to note that depictions such as drawings, cartoons, sculptures, or paintings that represent children in sexually explicit conduct may run afoul of certain obscenity statutes if the depictions lack certain cultural or social value. See 18 U.S.C. 1466A.

Relevant federal statutes on child pornography – with corresponding definitions -- may be found here:

http://www.missingkids.com/LegalResources/Exploitation/FederalLaw

State laws may also be applicable.[4]

As soon as possible, as required by law, the Legal and Community Advocacy department should report any discovery of child pornography (as described above) to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (800-843-5678). See 18 U.S.C. 2258A Reports to other law enforcement agencies may be appropriate depending on the circumstances.

Community members who find child pornography on the site may delete and report it by email to legal-reports@wikimedia.org. Community members are asked to notify Legal and Community Advocacy about any child pornography found on the site to ensure it is properly reported to the authorities.

Even when reporting, Community members are advised not to store or send images of child pornography through any means, including snail mail or email, unless pursuant to police instructions.


6. Threats. Our WMF staff manual (entitled On-Wiki Threat Protocol) should govern our actions vis-a-vis threats, such as suicide threats and threats of violence (e.g., bomb threats and threats of harm to third parties). This manual applies to both U.S. and international threats.

Under our privacy policy, Legal and Community Advocacy may release information to law enforcement "[w]here it is reasonably necessary to protect the rights, property or safety of the Wikimedia Foundation, its users or the public." Legal and Community Advocacy should notify the General Counsel of any such disclosure.


7. Biographies of Living Persons and Defamation. As a general matter, disputes regarding biographies of living persons or defamation should be resolved by the Community, including the Email Response Team (OTRS). See Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons (or equivalent policies in other Projects). An office action by the Wikimedia Foundation – which should be approved by the Office of the General Counsel -- may be appropriate if community actions have not been effective and legal considerations require such action.

If the defamation claim is the subject of a legal action, the Office of the General Counsel will review the case. In cases where a complainant's attorney expresses willingness to work with the Wikimedia Foundation, the Office of the General Counsel may request the Email Response Team (OTRS) to appoint a volunteer to work on improving the article in question.

Example: The legal counsel of the subject of a biography threatens a lawsuit unless certain content is removed. After talking to the Office of the General Counsel, the legal counsel expresses a willingness to work with a volunteer to correct the biography. The Office of General Counsel may request a member of the Email Response Team to appoint a volunteer to work on improving the article.

Uso justo

Many Wikimedia Projects include only material that is available under a free content license and do not allow for fair use, such as Wikimedia Commons. Commons:Fair use Other Projects have policies that are stricter than legal “fair use” in the United States. See, e.g., Wikipedia:Non-free content. Furthermore, a number of language sites may vary from their English counterpart Project and do not allow for “fair use” (like the Spanish or German language Wikipedias).

The legal determination of “fair use” is an extremely complicated analysis that depends on a wide variety of factors. As the U.S. Copyright Office has noted: “The distinction between fair use and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined. There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission.” http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html  Moreover, many countries do not recognize fair use or have much more narrow definitions.

The Wikimedia Foundation generally will not provide legal advice to users as to whether certain materials constitute fair use. To assist the user, however, the Wikimedia Foundation may refer inquiries to the appropriate policy relating to the Project in question. See, e.g., Wikipedia:Non-free content. Also, when fair use is relevant to the discussion, the Wikimedia Foundation may direct users to respected sites that provide background information on fair use in the United States. See, e.g., http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter9/index.html ; http://w2.eff.org/IP/eff_fair_use_faq.php

Example: The Office of the General Counsel receives a request from a community member as to whether or not a photo on English Wikipedia constitutes “fair use.” The Office of the General Counsel should not offer specific legal advice on whether the use of the photograph is “fair use.” The decision is that of the community member, not the Office of the General Counsel. However, the Office of the General Counsel may refer the member to the relevant Project policy on Non-free content and to well regarded websites that discuss “fair use” (including those already linked on the Project policy).

Acoso

If a user complains about harassment on any of the Projects, the user should be advised to contact an administrator. In appropriate cases, such as legal threats, threats of violence, or outing, Communities may create policies that provide for protective blocks by administrators without prior warnings. See, e.g., Wikipedia:Harassment & Wikipedia:No personal attacks.

In cases of serious harassment, involving, for example, credible threats of violence, users should contact their local police. The report usually may be made in the jurisdiction of the victim, perpetrator, or threat. The Wikimedia Foundation will fully cooperate in investigations involving harassment of users that include credible threats of violence. Users, however, must report the harassment to local police. (Our experience is that local police usually refuse to receive reports directly from the Wikimedia Foundation).

Under the Privacy Policy, the Wikimedia Foundation may disclose user information to the police “[w]here it is reasonably necessary to protect the rights, property or safety of the Wikimedia Foundation, its users or the public.”

Example: A user has received contributions on her talk page where another user has threatened to burn down her home. The threat appears credible. The victim of the threat should contact her local police and report the incident. (She could also report it to the police department where the perpetrator is located.) The Wikimedia Foundation would appreciate if the user contacted the Foundation to provide a “heads up” on the police report. The Foundation will cooperate fully with the police, and may disclose the personal information on the user who was making the threats as allowed by the Privacy Policy.

Litigation

Any summons, complaint, contentious legal letter, or other legal document directed to the Wikimedia Foundation should be forwarded to the Office of the General Counsel immediately.

Example: A letter is delivered to the Community department threatening a lawsuit based on a user dispute with the Wikimedia Foundation. A copy of that letter should be forwarded to the Office of the General Counsel immediately.

Subpoenas

The Office of the General Counsel will have the responsibility of responding to subpoenas and court orders issued by a U.S. court. The Office will determine, based on the facts, whether to respond to or contest the subpoena or order. Notice to a user about a civil subpoena should be provided (when possible) as stated in our Privacy Policy. See http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_policy Usually such notice should be provided approximately 10 days before compliance with the civil subpoena to allow the user to seek a quashing of the subpoena.

As a general rule, the Wikimedia Foundation may not recognize a foreign subpoena or order. Foreign parties will be asked to obtain a U.S. equivalent before we recognize such a subpoena. See 28 U.S.C. 1782.

Exception: As a courtesy, the Wikimedia Foundation may recognize a foreign subpoena or order if the information sought is needed by police in an investigation that involves an immediate threat to life or limb. User information may be released without a subpoena “[w]here it is reasonably necessary to protect the rights, property or safety of the Wikimedia Foundation, its users or the public.”

Example: The Wikimedia Foundation receives a subpoena from London to disclose user information to support an ongoing civil lawsuit there. As a general rule, the Foundation may not recognize the foreign subpoena. The party should obtain a U.S. equivalent subpoena as allowed under 28 U.S.C. 1782.

Example: The Wikimedia Foundation receives an urgent phone call from the Australian police, indicating that the biography of a living local politician shows an assassination date two days later. As a courtesy, the Wikimedia Foundation may recognize a foreign subpoena asking for the identifying information of the user who posted the assassination date. The Wikimedia Foundation may also choose to disclose the information without a subpoena if “reasonably necessary to protect the . . . safety of the Wikimedia Foundation, its users or the public.”

Trademark Licensing

Our trademark licensing must remain consistent with our mission “to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally.” As stated in our trademark policy, the Wikimedia Foundation has a need “to ensure that the Wikimedia Marks remain reliable indicators of free content . . . and source/origin.” http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Trademark_Policy More detailed explanation of these values can be found here: http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Values

In a nutshell, in deciding whether a trademark license is appropriate, we need to ensure that we are comfortable associating our brand with another party's reputation and their proposed specific uses. Relevant factors include:

  • The likelihood that the license will increase the Wikimedia Foundation's access to a new segment of users who would benefit from open knowledge and free access to information;
  • The likelihood that the license will increase the number of editors on the Wikimedia Projects;
  • The means by which the licensing relationship furthers the Wikimedia Foundation's mission in general;
  • The licensing party's position and reputation with respect to open knowledge and free access to information (cf. Project Gutenberg);
  • The licensing party's position and reputation with respect to the free and open source movement in general, including the use of freely-licensed tools;
  • The licensing party's reputation with respect to social responsibility in general; and
  • The importance of ensuring that the Wikimedia Foundation stays free of influence in the way it operates.

Commercial uses of our brand are acceptable if relevant considerations support the license.

Non-exclusivity. To ensure world-wide, unrestricted, dissemination of knowledge, we do not enter into exclusive agreements on the use of our trademarks.

Examples: A local group wishes to print T-shirts with the Wikipedia puzzle globe as an effort to promote free content in society. The Wikimedia Foundation will evaluate the context of the use. The reputation of the group will also be a key factor. How the T-shirts would be distributed would be another consideration. If the distribution of the T-shirts would advance the mission and not harm the good reputation of the Wikimedia Foundation, licensing may be permitted.

Referencias

  1. Los Capítulos son asociaciones que se constituyen al amparo de las leyes del país en el que son fundados y por tanto deben cumplir con las leyes del país que regulan la constitución y el funcionamiento de dichas organizaciones. Dichas leyes pueden incluir, por ejemplo, normativa específica en caso de organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro.
  2. En circunstancias excepciones la Fundación Wikimedia puede tomar determinadas medidas permitidas por la ley. Véase, por ejemplo, 47 U.S.C. 230(c)(2).
  3. Specifically, under federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256), child pornography is defined as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture, or computer or computer-generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, of sexually explicit conduct, where-- (A) the production of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; (B) such visual depiction is a digital image, computer image, or computer-generated image that is, or is indistinguishable from, that of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; or (C) such visual depiction has been created, adapted, or modified to appear that an identifiable minor is engaging in sexually explicit conduct.
  4. For example, among other things, California law makes it a felony to distribute or exhibit matter depicting a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, including (1) Sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex or between humans and animals; (2) Penetration of the vagina or rectum by any object; (3) Masturbation for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer; (4) Sadomasochistic abuse for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer; (5) Exhibition of the genitals or the pubic or rectal area of any person for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer; and (6) Defecation or urination for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer.