Research:Testing capacity of expressions of gratitude to enhance experience and motivation of editors
Wikipedia’s mission to provide a free encyclopedia depends not only on the ongoing recruitment and retention of new editors, but also on maintaining motivation among its current editors. Research in other domains shows that receiving gratitude for one’s work can increase motivation (Grant and Gino, 2010) and that when embedded in network structures such gratitude can become contagious (Spiro, Matias, Monroy-Hernandez 2016).
In this project, one of two studies CivilServant plans in collaboration with Aaron Halfaker, we are partnering with four Wikipedia language communities to test whether "Thanks", a feature that allows editors to express gratitude to each other, enhances the experience of editors and further motivates those editors. The study, which uses randomized trials, was and continues to be developed in collaboration with the needs and insights of the partnering Wikipedia communities. At the completion of the study we will report to the individual partnering communities on the effectiveness of gratitude in their Wikipedia and to the broader Wikipedia community on the potential of gratitude prompts to increase positive outcomes in their Wikipedias.
CivilServant and "Citizen Behavioral Science"
CivilServant is a nonprofit that works together with online communities for a flourishing internet. CivilServant does this through "Citizen Behavioral Science", using experimental tools that can effectively identify designs that serve the online community well, at the same time working with those communities to insure that the experimental process is open, transparent and driven by the insights and needs of that community. In past, CivilServant has worked with multiple reddit communities. CivilServant is incubated by the citizen media organization Global Voices, which has a history of supporting people around the world to add indigenous language material to the web, including Wikipedia. CivilServant is funded through donations from individuals and foundations. It does not take funds from-for profit corporations.
In this study we will test the effectiveness of Thanks to motivate Wikipedia contributors. Thanks allows editors to privately thank another user for a specific contribution on a Wikimedia project, including a new article or a spelling correction. A notification of appreciation is then directed to the contributor. In the study, we will randomly assign participants to receive a prompt to express appreciation for others' contributions and observe the outcomes for sender and receivers.
The primary outcome of interest is editor productivity (i.e. whether editors make more contributions if a page they edited had a gratitude prompt). Other outcome measures will include: editors’ attitudes towards Wikipedia and expressed experience on Wikipedia (determined by survey); the possible retention of newcomers who receive Thanks; and cascade effects (i.e. if receivers of gratitude send gratitude messages themselves).
Note: In an earlier plan for this study we also intended to study the impact of giving and receiving "Love", another tool that allows Wikipedians to express gratitude to each other.
The project is a collaboration with four language Wikipedias - Arabic, German, Persian and Polish. These Wikipedias are among a number CivilServant reached out after conducting a data analysis to determine that there was a sufficient amount of editor activity to conduct a study. Liaisons in each community work with CivilServant researchers to develop the research design so that the study answers questions that matter to that community and is conducted in a way that respects the communities' values and norms.
If you are active in a Wikipedia language community and want to hear from us when future calls for partners goes out, please reach out to juliakamin(cs) or add your username below.
- September, 2018: Outreach and discussions with Wikipedias interested in participating in research project.
- September-October, 2018: Working with liaisons in participating communities to seek feedback from community about research project, including on the outcomes they care about, how to design the research and any concerns they may have.
- October-November, 2018: Design research in collaboration with community liaisons.
- November 2018-April, 2019: Develop infrastructure to run the experiment.
- April - July, 2019: Conduct the experiment.
- July - Dec, 2019: Analyse data and report results back to communities.
Policy, Ethics and Human Subjects Research
CivilServant will work with the Princeton University Institutional Review Board to insure the study’s design and consent are in line with ethical standards applied to scholarly research. In addition to those requirements, CivilServant will work with participating Wikipedia communities to ensure that the design respects the dignity of all participants. When those plans are complete and approved we will post them here.
- Jan 17, 2019: Kittens, Baklava, and Bubble Tea: How Wikipedians Thank Each Other in Different Languages (available in Deutsch, فارسی, polski, عربي)
Results of the study will be be posted here. We will report not only on the effectiveness of gratitude prompts in each of the four communities that tested it, but also on its potential to improve the experience of newcomers and experienced editors in other Wikipedia communities.
Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(6), 946.
Spiro, E. S., Matias, J. N., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2016, May). Networks of Gratitude: Structures of Thanks and User Expectations in Workplace Appreciation Systems. In ICWSM (pp. 358-367).