监管员/历史

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historical pages 监管员的历史
本页记录了监管员及其选举流程的历史,从2004年监管员用户组的诞生开始,当时建立这个用户组是为了分担一些维基媒体系统管理员的工作。本页的初始版本基于2010年1月19日Mike.lifeguard撰写的 Steward elections through the ages 一文。

监管员是在所有维基媒体站点都有完整界面权限的用户组,其权限包括更改任意用户权限和用户组。若需了解监管员当前的职责,请参见监管员

历史

监管员
Wikimedia steward Icon.svg
用于监管员
公告

2004年3月——提案

截至2004年初,用户权限的更改需要由有服务器权限的开发者手工修改数据库来进行。在一封标题为 Developers should mind their own business(开发者更应该关注自己的本职工作)的wikipedia-l邮件中,Tim Starling提议从软件开发者中分离出用户权限管理的权限。

Tim之前已经创建了“开发者”用户组,其中包括管理用户组的权限。他建议在相应的代码完成之后,开发者用户组同时负责用户重命名以及隐藏条目历史。(后来二者分别由行政员监督员完成)

他建议称呼这些用户“荣誉开发者”,通过提名和投票来产生,“类似当时英文维基管理员选举的方式”。如果大多数人投票通过,或者仲裁委员会要求,或者Jimbo Wales决定,荣誉开发者将失去其权限。

2004年4月——建立

第一届“荣誉开发者”的选举在2004年4月进行;20名候选人中,8名在投票中获得80%及以上的支持,通过了选举。当时对投票者并没有任何资格要求。

“荣誉开发者”很快便在Daniel Mayer的提议下改名为“监管员”,其他提案包括“社群开发者”(community developer)、“维基主管”(WikiWarden)、“社群主管”('community warden)、“协调者”(coordinator)、“维基媒体公务员”(Wikimedia servant)、“部长”(secretariat或secretary)、“超级行政员”(super-bureaucrat)。最初版的文档见此,最初的描述是“监管员是一群在所有维基媒体站点上都有权限任意设定用户权限的人”(Stewards are people who are able to set arbitrary user rights on any Wikimedia wiki)。

最初版的监管员方针也在这段时间起草完成,但尚未实施。

所有的监管员操作首先在测试维基上进行,相关提案通过后才将其权限扩展到了元维基。最初版的监管员权限非常受限制,仅仅是完成之前开发者做的事,按照本地社群共识赋权或除权行政员和管理员。很快,社群就开始讨论避免利益冲突的准则,最终决定监管员如果同时是仲裁者,则不能使用其权限来强制实施仲裁委员会的决定。

2005—2006

第二届监管员选举在2005年5月举行。当时有十名候选人,投票者只是对每个候选人投下“是”或“否”的票。有些反对者给出了简短的理由,但大多数讨论都局限于讨论页。这些选举反映出了最终确定的活跃度要求,以及监管员与其参与的本地计划之间的利益冲突相关准则。在那时还只有维基百科,所以利益冲突原则不允许监管员在他们母语的维基百科上除去用户权限。十名候选人中有九名当选,并且都是大比例通过。2005年12月,有一位想担任该职位的候选人自荐,尝试举行另一次选举,然而当时社群认为监管员选举不应该每位候选人单独举行,并决定这次选举过一段时间再开始。

2006年,监管员的职责进一步变化,主要强调监管员不应变为“维基警察”(wiki-cop)或者另一种形式的超级管理员。同年,在元维基的活跃度首次成为社群选举新监管员时的考虑因素。2006年的选举有16名候选人,且同样是一次简单的投票,候选人进行简要陈述,反对者简要叙述其理由。2006年选举的通过率大幅降低,只有9人通过。当选者大多都获得了95%以上的支持,最低一位也有90%的支持。未当选者收到的投票中,最常见的反对理由是缺乏经验,同时他们收到的投票总数显著低于当选者的票数。

2007—2009

2007年监管员的职责和其选举变得更为正式了。2007年选举有了一个标准化的顶部模板,进行了翻译,并且把章节分成了提问、是、否和中立。这次选举的提问并不多——18位候选人只收到了17个问题,大多数候选人没人提问。讨论页则有许多关于如何主持选举的讨论,包括怎样组织以及怎样在选举中增加提问的作用。这年也是第一年很多认真参选的人都落选了。在过去,各自计划中拥有高级权限的用户只要参选基本都能当选;2007年,社群则趋于反对一些在多个计划都有高级权限的候选人,主要是因为他们缺乏监管员工作方面的经验。

2007年选举在11月和12月举行,再下一次选举是2009年2月。2009年选举流程非常标准,使用了子页面、模板,以及嵌入引用,从而尽可能多地增加翻译的目标语言,并简化了投票者的流程。同时大家设立了独立的提问页面,最终收到了150个问题,并且许多问题都得到了深入讨论。所有认真参与的候选人都收到了4个及以上的提问。同时,当年选举还首次出现了所谓的“通用问题”,大概是为了教导投票者。这些问题基本上候选人改写一下他们的陈述就能作答,并且都是用英文问的(然而有些投票者并不是英文母语者)。候选人的陈述也都不再如往年的简略——从几句话的简短介绍到一两段话的叙述,且翻译成了多种语言。因为当时没有设置参选的最低标准,26名参与竞选的用户中有5名用户被取消资格。大多数竞选者缺乏对监管员一职的理解,完全不适合参选:6人只收到不到25%的支持票。2009年选举中,社群还建立了#wikimedia-stewards-elections的IRC频道用以监察并管理选举,还设立了一组独立的志愿者来确保选举流程平稳运作。26名候选人中最终有9名成功当选,参选成功率又一次降低。

2008 — global groups

There were no elections in 2008, though significant changes occurred in steward access. The CentralAuth extension was implemented during 2008, and this involved the creation of the steward global group, which granted global access to sysop and oversight rights, as well as access to the CheckUser log - this access would later be removed after an internal steward discussion in 2009. Prior to centralauth, stewards exercised rights through adding and removing themselves to local user groups through meta using the userrights-interwiki permission; for example, to delete a page, a steward would need to add themselves to the local sysop group. After 2008, this was only done for using CheckUser and oversight permissions. This was also the first year in which global accounts could be locked, preventing them from logging in. 2008 also marked the creation of additional global user groups managed by stewards, including global rollback. At the time, requests for global permissions were handled through the steward requests page for permissions.

Also implemented in 2008 was the global staff user group, for paid employees of the Wikimedia Foundation, trustees, and others acting in an official capacity for the Foundation. As a result of a request for comments, the global group was created and managed by Wikimedia Foundation staff, and gave global access to the wiki interface as with stewards, except with full global access to CheckUser and oversight permissions as well. While membership in this global group was initially managed by Wikimedia Foundation staff, that responsibility has since been delegated to stewards, who assign staff rights to global accounts as needed.

Appointment and removal of non-elected stewards

During the 2009 confirmation process, the interesting case of Jimmy Wales was raised. Wales had been appointed in 2006 by the Board of Trustees, who were still responsible for deciding who the stewards were, though in practice they followed the community wishes in all other cases. Wales was not confirmed during the 2009 confirmations, due to his inactivity in the steward role, and the suggestion that staff rights were more appropriate for him to hold. A compromise was reached, with Wales agreeing to have a global group created for himself. That global group would go on to have most of the active rights removed, following a request for comments regarding deletions that Wales performed on Commons in 2010.

2010 — 2011

The 2010 elections saw the most candidates out of all the previous elections, with a total of 74 candidates. Of these, 8 were elected, 21 not elected, and 45 disqualified. 2010 saw further institutionalization of the election process, with time for submissions, questions, and a three week voting period. The elected-to-qualified-candidate ratio further decreased in 2010, though a few of the candidates who did not pass in 2010 went on to become stewards in subsequent elections. During the 2010 confirmations, detailed summaries of the arguments presented for and against each steward were given on the talk page for the final steward decision; this format of decision on confirmations was discontinued from 2011-2015, when it was re-introduced during the 2016 confirmations.

There were two elections in 2011; the first saw 112 candidates; of which, 91 were disqualified, 10 were not elected, and 11 were elected. This was the last election during which CentralNotice banners advertised the nomination process to all users; starting in the 2011-2 elections, only those eligible received notification to cut down on the number of ineligible candidacies. The second 2011 elections saw 17 candidates, of which 8 were elected. There were only confirmations at the time of the first election in 2011, and these were handled in two stages, with the community providing input during the first, and the election committee evaluating consensus in the second. This method would be used until the 2016 confirmations.

Global sysops

During 2010, a very controversial proposal to create global sysops was voted on. The vote had 1802 total votes, of which 1385 were in support (76.9% support margin). This proposal created a global group to act in a specific area of steward activity - namely performing routine maintenance and counter-vandalism on small projects without active local admins. This had previously been a role of stewards, but it was felt that more help was needed in the area. The initial proposal would allow global sysops to globally block IP addresses as well; however, a substantial number of users opposed this function during the vote, so it was not added to the final group which was created. 2010 also saw the first election of new global sysops, done as-needed at Steward requests/Global permissions.