使用条款/有关未披露有偿编辑的常见问题

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This page is a translated version of the page Terms of use/FAQ on paid contributions without disclosure and the translation is 80% complete.

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关于披露有偿编辑的常见问题

如果我是作为无报酬的志愿者编辑或上传,此规定是否适用于我?

绝对不!维基百科项目是由无数的无偿志愿者编辑和支持。维基百科和其他维基媒体项目由一个非营利组织运行——这是世界上最热门网站中几乎唯一的非营利网站。志愿服务使我们的服务更加特别和广泛使用。作为不计报酬的志愿者,我们鼓励你编辑和上传内容,无须按此条款披露信息。

然而,某些贡献者会因其编辑而收到报酬。他们以中立观点进行编辑时可以改善本项目的整体质量。这包括许多与机构关联的贡献者,例如大学、画廊、图书馆、档案馆和博物馆。但另一方面,有偿的宣传编辑——即付费以编辑条目来宣传公司、产品或服务的编辑是被强烈反对,并被大多数项目禁止。

如果你未因编辑而得到报酬,你不必担心这项要求披露的条款:你绝对没事!你是令人钦佩的志愿者社区一员,为整个世界贡献了前所未有的免费信息资源。

如果你正在获得报酬,你必须披露它。在相关上下文的编辑摘要、你的用户页或者条目讨论页标明以使社区知道这点,从而公平揭示你的视角。请务必确保你了解规则:我们在下面有详细的解释,隐瞒有偿情况为维基媒体项目贡献付费客户要求的内容可能会带来问题。

小小提醒:部分项目有与使用条款不同(更严厉)的利益冲突方针。这些方针可能阻止你以某种志愿者身份编辑,比如编写有关自己的条目。请确保你在开始编辑前查阅这些社群的方针!如有任何疑问,欢迎随时咨询你的本地社区。每个项目都提供了联系方式(通常在页面底部),并且一般都有各不相同的问题和公告位置

这一规定对教师、教授或画廊、图书馆、档案馆和博物馆的员工有何影响?

These requirements shouldn't keep teachers, professors, or people working at galleries, libraries, archives, and museums ("GLAM") institutions from making contributions in good faith! If you fall into one of those categories, you are only required to comply with the disclosure provision when you are compensated by your employer or by a client specifically for edits and uploads to a Wikimedia project.

For example, if a professor at University X is paid directly by University X to write about that university on Wikipedia, the professor needs to disclose that the contribution is compensated. There is a direct quid pro quo exchange: money for edits. However, if that professor is simply paid a salary for teaching and conducting research, and is only encouraged by their university to contribute generally without more specific instruction, that professor does not need to disclose their affiliation with the university.

The same is true with GLAM employees. Disclosure is only necessary where compensation has been promised or received in exchange for a particular contribution. A museum employee who is contributing to projects generally without more specific instruction from the museum need not disclose her affiliation with the museum. On the other hand, a Wikipedian in Residence who is specifically compensated to edit the article about the archive at which they are employed should make a simple disclosure that he is a paid Wikipedian in Residence with the archive. This would be sufficient disclosure for purposes of requirement.

社群如何按现有规则检察和执行此规定,并照顾到隐私和态度?

保护善意编者是很重要的。类似傀儡和用户查核的调查,使用条款中的披露规定采用与现有方针和做法相同的方式,应做到鉴别有偿贡献和保护为维基百科及其他维基媒体项目做出有益贡献的人们。

相关方针包括:维基百科支柱之一的文明方针;有关项目的方针,比如ZHWP:骚扰;以及使用条款之禁止跟踪和滥用。(在更极端的情况下,当地法律可能适用。)

这一要求与其他一样,应该采用建设性的方式以帮助协作和改善我们的项目。违规的用户应该首先对他们提出警告,使他们了解这些规则,仅在必要时采取封禁手段。换句话说:善意推定不要伤害新手。骚扰也应该避免。例如,中文维基百科方针骚扰约束了不当行为,用户不得公开发布有关其他用户的个人信息。

我怎样能避免此项使用条款的披露要求?

如果你想避免此规定的披露要求,你应该放弃因你的编辑而得到报酬。

在维基百科及其姊妹网站进行有偿编辑的“适用法律”是什么?未披露的有偿编辑可能违法吗?

取决于你的操作方式,多项法律可能适用于你、你的公司以及你的客户,例如反不正当竞争法。除了使用条款中的要求,你还必须遵守这些法律对有偿编辑的披露要求。

我们不能为你提供具体的法律要求,如果你有疑问,你应该自行聘请律师。尽管如此,一般来说,欺骗性的商业行为(如隐瞒专业隶属关系)在许多司法管辖区被禁止。

In the United States, for example, "Unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce are unlawful."[1] The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has the nationwide authority to regulate this.[2] For instance, if you failed to disclose in a relevant online forum that you are affiliated with a company under the FTC’s regulation, FTC regulations warn of liability:

An online message board designated for discussions of new music download technology is frequented by MP3 player enthusiasts. They exchange information about new products, utilities, and the functionality of numerous playback devices. Unbeknownst to the message board community, an employee of a leading playback device manufacturer has been posting messages on the discussion board promoting the manufacturer’s product. Knowledge of this poster’s employment likely would affect the weight or credibility of her endorsement. Therefore, the poster should clearly and conspicuously disclose her relationship to the manufacturer to members and readers of the message board.[3]

The FTC's guide Dot Com Disclosures specifies that disclosures like this one "must be communicated effectively so that consumers are likely to notice and understand them". State law may also apply, as in the N.Y. Attorney General’s 2013 investigation regarding companies engaging in astroturfing.[4]

Outside the US, other laws may also require disclosure of paid contributions. The EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (and corresponding national versions) ban use of "editorial content ... to promote a product where a trader has paid for the promotion without making that clear".[5] National legislation of EU member states may further restrict undisclosed paid contributions. For example, competition laws have been used by national courts in Germany to find violations when a contributor failed to properly disclose their affiliation.

Where legally-required disclosures cannot be made in a way that complies with community rules, the community rules take precedence. For example, if local laws require disclosure of sponsorship of an edit in the article text itself, and putting such a message in the article text violated community rules (as it likely does in most projects), then such edits would be prohibited.

有偿编辑可能导致哪些非法律层面的负面影响?

以现实生活中多次出现的例子看,未适当披露的有偿编辑可能导致对公司、客户和个人的负面宣传。我们发现新闻界会密切关注此类故事。未有效披露的有偿编辑可能导致失去维基社区乃至广大公众的信任。

为保持善意和避免误解,透明和友好合作是参与维基媒体贡献的最佳策略。为避免尴尬,你应当按使用条款及本地方针的要求披露有偿编辑的情况。另请参考Wikipedia:利益衝突

“报酬”的定义是什么?

在此规定中,“报酬”是指金钱、货物或服务的交换。

如何理解“雇主、客户和隶属关系”

This means the person or organization that is paying you compensation – money, goods, or services – with respect to any contribution to a Wikimedia project. This could be a business, a charity, an educational institution, a government department or another individual, for example. The disclosure requirement is simple, and requires you to provide this information in one of the three ways described above. If you are editing an article on Wikipedia on behalf of your employer, for example, you must disclose your employer's details. If you have been hired by a public relations firm to edit Wikipedia, you must disclose both the firm and the firm's client. If you are a compensated Wikimedian in residence, for example, you must note what GLAM organisation is paying you.

仅在编辑维基百科条目时必须披露有偿编辑吗?

不,在为任何维基媒体项目进行任何类型有偿贡献时,你都必须披露你的雇主、客户和隶属关系。这包括编辑讨论页,以及在其他非维基百科项目上编辑。

这是否意味着有偿编辑始终被允许,只要他们披露此关系?

不是。用户还必须遵守各维基媒体项目的其他方针和指引,以及任何适用法律。举例来说,中文维基百科的中立的观点方针要求编辑适当、合乎比例(尽可能)地不带有偏见;这些要求必须被遵守,即便贡献者披露进行有偿编辑。

我该如何在我的用户页披露有偿编辑?

你可以在你的用户页阐述受雇于特定客户或雇主。如果你受雇于Acme公司,并且工作责任是编辑与Acme公司相关的维基百科条目,在你的用户页说明你代表Acme公司编辑即满足使用条款的最低要求。也请注意,你仍需遵循社区与基金会的方针,以及适用法律。

我该如何在我的编辑摘要披露有偿编辑?

你可以在你“保存”编辑或贡献前在编辑摘要框表明你的雇主、客户和隶属关系。例如,在你保存与你的客户相关的维基百科条目的编辑前,你可以在编辑摘要框中写明:“X聘请我更新这篇维基百科条目”或者“我受雇于X”。

我该如何在一个讨论页披露有偿编辑?

你可以在编辑前在相关的讨论页表明你的雇主、客户和隶属关系,或者在你“保存”编辑或贡献后立即表明。

我必须披露所受报酬的细节吗?

你不需要披露因编辑而所受报酬的数量或类型;最低要求是披露你的雇主、客户和隶属关系。

本地项目可以采用另一版对有偿编辑的披露方针吗?

Disclosure of paid contributions to any of the Wikimedia projects is a requirement under the disclosure provision of the Terms of Use. Nonetheless, individual projects may create an alternative disclosure policy when their projects or communities have particular needs to either strengthen or reduce the requirements. The provision gives communities discretion to adjust the rules set out in the Terms of Use to their specific project after following the project's standard consensus-based process for establishing core policies. Adopting an alternative disclosure policy requires consensus, consistent with the project’s past practice and local understanding of what consensus is. To adopt a pre-existing policy as an alternative disclosure policy, a project community must gain consensus specifically to replace the paid editing disclosure requirements in the Terms of Use with the policy of the project. For an example of an alternative disclosure policy, see this proposal on MediaWiki.

在创建这种方针后,项目必须将他们的方针列入替代披露方针列表。此列表可帮助编者和姊妹项目快速发现本地项目采用的有偿编辑方针,或者确认采用默认条款。

这是否意味着维基媒体計畫必须改变他们的方针?

维基媒体项目可以参照此要求更改他们的方针,以更严格地限制有偿贡献,或者提供另一版规则。

哪些项目确立了另一版披露方针?

确立另一版披露方针的项目详见:替代披露方针列表

這個條款何時生效?

含有披露要求的使用条款在2014年6月16日生效。此要求源自社群讨论,在经初步提议后,维基媒体基金会的法律和社群宣传团队完成了修订的条款。讨论在2014年3月25日关闭,修订版在2014年4月25日被受托管理委员会批准。

參考資料

  1. Federal Trade Commission Act 15 U.S.C. § 45(a)(1)
  2. Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45(a)(2)
  3. 16 C.F.R. §255.5, Example 8, p.12.
  4. Parino v. Bidrack, Inc., 838 F. Supp. 2d 900, 905 (N.D. Cal. 2011) (plaintiff's allegations, including defendant's creation and use of fake reviews on website, were sufficient to bring a claim under California's Unfair Competition Law and False Advertising Law)
  5. Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament (Annex I, points 11 and 22).