Learning and Evaluation/Case studies/Wikipedia Education Program Egypt, terms 1 and 2

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Learning and Evaluation

Wikipedia Education Program Egypt, Terms 1 and 2 Case Study[edit]

Evaluation Report
Report type: Self-evaluation
Status: First iteration submitted on April 11, 2013
Authors: LiAnna Davis, Global Education Program Communications Manager / Rod Dunican, Global Education Program Director
Coverage: 01/2012–03/2013 (14 months)
Program family: Education Program
Expected impact on: Wikipedia (primary), Wikimedia Commons (secondary)
Program lead: Wikimedia Foundation
Program execution: Staff, contractors, volunteers
Target country: Egypt


The Arabic Wikipedia and the digital divide: the need for action[edit]

Although Arabic is one of the most spoken languages in the world, the Arabic Wikipedia has lagged behind other language Wikipedias. The Arabic Wikipedia is a striking example for the "Digital divide", the inequality between people from different parts of the world in terms of access to knowledge. As of April 2013, it has only about 224,000 articles — a tiny fraction in comparison to the English Wikipedia, which has 4.2 million articles. And while the very active editors (defined as those who make more than 100 edits each month) hovers just under 100 for the Arabic Wikipedia, it's around 3,300 each month for the English Wikipedia. The Arabic Wikipedia has been steadily growing over the last few years, but numbers show that residents of Arab World countries generally look up information on the English or French Wikipedias, rather than in their native language, and often use Google Translate or some other machine translation. Those people from the Arab world who don't speak a second language only have a very limited access to knowledge.

That's why the Arab World was a region identified by the Wikimedia Strategic Plan as a particular important area for focus; the Wikipedia Education Program is one activity undertaken to increase quality of and participation in the Arabic Wikipedia.

The Wikipedia Education Program Egypt: giving people access to Wikipedia in Arabic[edit]

Wikipedia Education Program Egypt logo

The Global Wikipedia Education Program started with a successful pilot in 2010-11 in the United States. An expansion of the program to India in fall 2011 did not go well, and with learnings from the Pune pilot, we set out to start a small Cairo Pilot in October 2011. Annie Lin served as the program manager for the Cairo Pilot, in which classes at two universities in Egypt, Ain Shams University and Cairo University, started editing Wikipedia as part of their coursework. Five classes participating in Egypt were translation courses, in which students translated Good or Featured Articles from the language they were studying into Arabic and posted it on the Arabic Wikipedia. Students were assisted by Campus Ambassadors in person and Online Ambassadors virtually. Classes in the Cairo Pilot started in February 2012 and wrapped up with a celebration conference in July 2012. Learnings from the Cairo Pilot influenced the development of the Egypt program, where we opened the program to other universities in Egypt, although a political strike at the University of Alexandria resulted in no classes actually occurring during the time frame. The second term began in September 2012 and wrapped up in February 2013. At the time of this writing, a third term is just getting underway, so those statistics are not included in this report.

One important aspect to note is that throughout all terms of the Egypt program, the country was in the immediate aftermath of a revolution. Political and structural instability were the norm throughout the program, and plans changed quickly due to outside pressures, such as protests shutting down campuses, lack of stable internet in classrooms, etc. Despite these challenges, the Wikipedia Education Program Egypt continued to thrive, and is well on its way to becoming a force on the Arabic Wikipedia.

We see three phases so far in the Global Education Program's history. Phase 1 was the pilot phase, where we kicked off pilot programs and discovered what worked and what didn't. Phase 2 is a solidifying phase, where we have firmly established the program in operation and developed significant support structure to ensure the program can grow. Phase 3 is when we look to dramatically expand and scale programs. As of this report writing, the Egypt program is in the middle of Phase 2.

Theory of change[edit]

The theory of change for the Wikipedia Education Program was informed by the observation that the common theory of change for Wikipedia workshops doesn't work.[1] This theory of change is – simply speaking – that a self-selecting group of people who sign up for a workshop just need to be taught how to contribute to Wikipedia, and then they will become long-term contributors.

For the Wikipedia Education Program, the theory is quite different. We believe that you can teach someone the skills required to contribute to Wikipedia, but can't teach someone to become a Wikipedian — if you're predisposed to contributing to Wikipedia, then exposure to Wikipedia editing through our program as part of a class assignment will encourage you to take the step from being a reader to being an editor. But we believe that if you're not predisposed, you will never become a long-term contributor. Instead, we focus on generating significant high-quality content from students each term. A small fraction of these students will continue to edit, but recruiting them to become long-term Wikipedians is not the focus of our program. Instead, we wish to recruit the professors to be long-term users of Wikipedia as a teaching tool. If we recruit and retain one professor, that professor will bring 20–30 students to Wikipedia up to two times each year and teach them how to edit Wikipedia. A small fraction of those students may continue editing after the course is over because they are predisposed to editing Wikipedia, but the real value in the program comes from the fact that students come each term and add significant high-quality content to Wikipedia, with very little staff resources once the professor is experienced.

Program Logic Model[edit]


The Wikipedia Education Program Egypt has a relatively low start-up cost in relationship to budget and resource allocation for the significant content impact on the Arabic Wikipedia. For context, the program costs represent less than 1% of the overall WMF budget and only 0.7% of potential WMF yearly staff hours.

Spring term[edit]

Annie Lin and Faris El-Gwely in Cairo, March 2012

Budget: $128,159.

  • This budget includes but is not limited to:
    • WMF staff time launching pilot, setting strategy and goals, recruiting ambassadors and professors, managing regional contractors and meeting with key university contacts
    • Regional contractor time in implementing strategy, working with Ambassadors and professors
    • Multiple trips to and from Cairo and the Middle East region
    • Ambassador training
    • An "End-of-term" conference for all participants
  • Staff & Contractors involved in the launch of Cairo pilot includes:
    • 1 WMF staff member (6 months @ 15%)
    • 1 WMF staff member (6 months @ 50%)
    • 1 WMF staff member (2 months @ 5%)
    • 1 Contractor (4 months @ 50%, 6 months @ 100%)
    • 1 Contractor (4 months @ 50%)
  • Time:
    • Staff: 1260 hours
    • Contractor: 1500 hours
    • Volunteer: 127 hours for Campus Ambassadors, 25–35 hours for professors, 2–5 hours weekly for online ambassadors

Fall term[edit]

Budget: $80,093.

  • Budget includes but is not limited to:
    • WMF staff time setting strategy, goals and managing regional contractor
    • Regional contractors in implementing strategy, working with Ambassadors, recruiting professor
    • Trips to and from Cairo and the Middle East region
  • Staff & Contractors involved in continuing to grow Cairo pilot includes:
    • 1 WMF staff member (6 months @ 10%)
    • 1 WMF staff member (6 months @ 70%)
    • 1 Contractor (6 months @ 100%)
  • Time:
    • Staff: 800 hours
    • Contractor: 1000 hours
    • Volunteer: 145 hours for Campus Ambassadors, 25–35 hours for professors, 2–5 hours weekly for online ambassadors.


Spring term[edit]

San Francisco – Cairo
Participants of the Arabic Wikipedia in Doha, Qatar (July 2011).

Communication and coordination between San Francisco and Cairo remained a challenge throughout the program. Annie Lin, the program manager, was based in San Francisco, the United States, and courses were in operation in Cairo, Egypt. Communication was further complicated by linguistic barriers; Annie spoke little Arabic, and many program participants spoke little English. Google Translate and text-based chats were the norm. The main communication activities included:

  • Weekly Skype checkins: Annie and Faris had weekly text-based chats over Skype
  • Facebook group: Ambassadors used a Facebook group to communicate with each other, and San Francisco staff were added to the group, although since the conversations were primarily in Arabic slang, it was nearly impossible for San Francisco-based staff to follow.
  • Periodic travel to Egypt: Annie made several trips to Cairo to meet with faculty members, Ambassadors, and students in-person.
  • Communication activities: In the first term, program leaders contributed the majority of blog posts about the program. Due to the unstable political situation, we chose not to spend a significant amount of time on communication about the program to a wider audience for the security of our program participants.
  • Brochures: One brochure was developed for the Education Program in Egypt: a trifold introduction to the program used in meetings with professors. The Welcome to Wikipedia brochure, translated into Arabic, was available for students.
On the ground
Professors in the first term receive training on how to use Wikipedia as a teaching tool in their classes (January 2012).

Five main activities occurred on the ground in Egypt:

  • Recruiting Ambassadors: Moushira Elamrawy, the interim Arabic World programs leader, had gathered several important Arabic Wikipedia editors to join Frank Schulenburg at the Arabic Wikipedia Convening, hosted by the Qatar Foundation in October 2011. These important Wikipedians formed several of our Ambassadors. Additionally, Annie posted to the Arabic Wikipedia village pump and on the talk pages of active Arabic Wikipedians to recruit both Campus and Online Ambassadors. Annie also asked faculty members who were participating in the program to recommend teaching assistants or other students who could be trained as Campus Ambassadors.
  • Recruiting professors: In December 2012, Frank and Annie traveled to Cairo and set up several meeting with professors at Cairo University and Ain Shams University. They had a lot of interest from faculty members, so recruitment was not difficult.
  • Ambassador training: To ensure that the Campus Ambassadors know what to expect in their role and have the appropriate skills to perform well, we required all Campus Ambassadors to participate in a two-day orientation, which was led by two local Arabic Wikipedians and took place almost entirely in Arabic. Topics covered include: overview of the Wikipedia Education Program and Cairo Pilot, expectations and responsibilities for Campus Ambassadors, presentation and public speaking skills, how to teach newbies to edit Wikipedia, tips on working with professors and students, and fundamental Wikipedia-editing skills. During this orientation, the Campus Ambassadors also paired themselves up with classes. We had to hold two such orientations because not everyone could make it on the same two days.
  • Professor training: We required all participating professors in the Cairo Pilot to participate in a 1-day faculty orientation, which covered the following topics: what is Wikipedia, basic information about how the Wikipedia-editing process and community works, Wikipedia's core policies and guidelines, how to work with Campus Ambassadors and Online Ambassadors, tips on assignment design and syllabus design, and working with students on Wikipedia assignments. A local Arabic Wikipedian led the sections about how Wikipedia works. Rochelle Davis — an Arabic-speaking Georgetown University professor who had been a successful participant in the U.S. Education Program — shared her own experiences and learnings assigning students to edit Wikipedia and guided the Cairo instructors on thinking through their own syllabus design. The orientation was almost entirely in Arabic.
  • Student workshops: Campus Ambassadors associated with each class held 18 workshops with students to teach them how to edit Wikipedia.
  • Outreach: Essam, a program coordinator, experimented with various outreach activities, including presenting at InFocus Photography Club and SIFE Cairo University Photography Team meetings, and contacting fellow ALUMs.

Fall term[edit]

The brochure Wikipedia in Arabic Education Program was used both terms; this is the version in Arabic distributed in the fall term. It explains the goals of the program and highlights the inequalities between the Arabic Wikipedia and other Wikipedia language versions (like Portuguese) that have a much smaller number of native speakers than Arabic but a larger number of active Wikipedia editors.
San Francisco – Cairo

As mentioned above, communication and coordination between San Francisco and Cairo remained a challenge throughout the program, and there were no changes in the weekly Skype checkins, Facebook group, or periodic travel to Egypt as mentioned in the "Spring term" section.

  • Communication activities: In the second term, we drew a bit more attention to the program through blog posts profile first term participants who stayed involved in the program written by LiAnna Davis, the Wikipedia Education Program Communications Manager.
  • Brochures: The trifold introduction to the program used in meetings with professors was translated into Arabic and printed for this term. The Case Studies brochure was also translated into Arabic, printed, and distributed to educators. The Welcome to Wikipedia brochure, translated into Arabic, was still available for students. Additionally, a series of handouts were developed in Arabic for students.
On the ground
The second Campus Ambassador training in September 2012.
  • Recruiting Ambassadors: For the second term, many of new Campus Ambassadors were students from the initial pilot who were interested in helping out a new batch of students. Faris reached out to several of his friends from the Arabic Wikipedia to be Online Ambassadors for the second term.
  • Recruiting professors: For the second term of the pilot, one of the vice deans at Ain Shams from the faculty of Al-Alsun (languages) thought the idea was very good, and encouraged all members of her faculty to participate in the program, which sped the growth in that area. Former students and Ambassadors who were serving as teaching assistants to other professors also spread the word, meaning recruitment of faculty members took off organically.
  • Ambassador training: A second term Campus Ambassador training was held to train new Ambassadors. It was led by Faris El-Gwely.
  • Professor training: TBD. We believe that there was a professor training, but are awaiting confirmation.
  • Student workshops: Campus Ambassadors associated with each class held 25 workshops with students to teach them how to edit Wikipedia.


Student editors in the article namespace.

Spring term[edit]

From the lessons learned in starting the US/CAN and India programs, we decided to develop a small pilot in Egypt where we could carefully monitor activities, progress and impact on the Arabic Wikipedia throughout the pilot.

Fall term[edit]

Percentage of Arabic Wikipedia editors who are students in second term of the Egypt program
87% of students in the program are women, meaning the program is also helping to address Wikipedia's gender gap (Photo: participants of the 2nd end-of-term-conference in February 2013).

After evaluating the results of the spring term and making adjustments to the program, we were able to significantly increase the number of students participating. Another important thing to note is that the number of professors in the program more than doubled, although the numbers of Ambassadors stayed about the same. That means we were able to have a greater impact in terms of number of students while maintaining a similar support structure.

Determining student activity based on text contributions rather than edits[edit]

Number of Very Active students in Wikipedia Education Program Egypt, with the traditional 100+ edit measurement in blue and the 5,000+ character measurement in red, by month. The graph demonstrates that for a content-focused program like this, more students add significants amount of content without making a large number of edits, so the traditional measurement of "very active editor" may need to be rethought in this case.

As you can see from the chart in the spring term of 2012, the program grew substantially over the course of two terms with regard to the number of participants. Not only did the number of students participating in the program overall nearly triple, the number of students who made more than 5 edits in the article namespace nearly quadrupled. Indeed, as the chart in the fall term of 2012 shows, we're having a very notable impact on the amount of active editors (5+ edits/month) and very active editors (100+ edit/month) on the Arabic Wikipedia. In the most active months of the terms, our students make up around 10% of the active and very active editors on the Arabic Wikipedia.

For programs focused on adding significant amounts content to Wikipedia, it may be more important to measure contributions rather than simply edit count to determine an editor status (i.e. active, very active). On a growing language version such as the Arabic Wikipedia, where the number of articles is relatively low and readership often resorts to viewing larger Wikipedias (e.g. en, fr) for information they need, the amount of content added has a significant impact on the local Wikipedia. With more high quality content, readers will begin to find the information they need on local language version.

Additionally, students create workarounds for potential access to technology issues, internet connectivity problems and regional instability. They work offline completing their class assignment, then contribute large amounts of content at one time resulting in a lower edit count, but a much higher contribution count.

NOTE: We used the follow metrics to determine student activity status based on contributions, rather than edits. Since adding an Arabic character adds more bytes than a Roman character, we have assumed that 2 bytes added to the Arabic Wikipedia = 1 character for the purposes of this analysis.

User classes
Contributing Active contributor A user with 500+ characters added to the article namespace of Wikipedia over the last 30 days.
Very active contributor A user with 5000+ characters added to the article namespace of Wikipedia over the last 30 days.

(monthly breakdown in Table 3 of the appendix)


At this point in the measurement process, we have no way to measure whether students have achieved the skills we are training them for in student workshops. We hope future iterations of the metrics tools and training will include measurements of things like whether students can add reference tags, images, and section headers to Wikipedia, whether Ambassadors are able to successfully teach students how to edit Wikipedia, and whether professors have learned how to incorporate Wikipedia into their curriculum.


Wikipedia Education Program Egypt student contributions, from the beginning of the Cairo Pilot to March 31, 2013.

See the Appendix at the end of this document for full numerical tables of the data talked about in this section.

Fall 2012 student contributions are more than triple the number of pages added in Spring 2012

Spring term[edit]

In the first term, the 38 students who made at least one edit to the article namespace contributed a grand total of 1.85 million bytes to the Arabic Wikipedia, or the equivalent of about 618 printed pages. That means each student averaged about 16 pages of content — an incredible achievement.

But perhaps more exciting is that a significant percentage of these students seem to be sticking around. Not counting students who took classes again in the second term, anywhere from two to four of the 38 students stuck around each month — a range of 5–10% editor retention. With such a small sample size, it's hard to draw any meaningful conclusions from this data, however. The students who did continue editing after the end of their courses have contributed an additional 327,842 bytes to the Arabic Wikipedia over the last eight months, since the end of the term in July.

Fall term[edit]

In the second term of the program, the 111 students who made at least one edit to the article namespace contributed a total of 5.97 million bytes to the Arabic Wikipedia, or the equivalent of about 1,990 printed pages. That means each student averaged about 18 pages of content — even more than the first term.

There has only been one month after the end of the second term in Egypt, but preliminary results are promising. Twenty-three students made edits in March 2013, adding a total of 187,960 bytes to the Arabic Wikipedia.

Professional translation service model versus Current Program model[edit]

Fall Term 2012: Estimated Professional Translation Costs versus Egypt Wikipedia Education Program Costs
Costs per page declines from $129 in Spring to just $40 Fall 2012.

Is it possible to simply hire a professional translation service to add pages to the Arabic Wikipedia without incurring the program costs? Yes.

The cost for a professional translation service is approximately $60 per page and would remain relatively stable for subsequent translations of content. However a professional translation service model would result in only new articles on the Arabic Wikipedia that have been translated from other languages. Translation services do not include the development of new articles through research and writing—whereas the Wikipedia Education Program model results in:

  • Translations of articles
  • Expansion of existing articles
  • Creation of new articles; and
  • An opportunity to continue to build an Arabic Wikipedia Community

Although the initial start-up costs for the Wikipedia Education Program results in the program having a higher per-page cost in the first term, the model quickly begins to reduce the overall cost per page significantly from $129 in the first term to $40 per page in the second. This is a direct result of scaling the program to include more professors and students, retaining existing professors and some students, increased overall content contributions and operational efficiencies through experience.

Overall picture[edit]

One key impact the Wikipedia Education Program Egypt has done well in is scalability. As mentioned in our theory of change, we believe that through professor retention, we will achieve true scalability. While students may or may not continue contributing content to the Arabic Wikipedia, if we retain a professor to keep using Wikipedia as a teaching tool at his or her university each term, we will bring fresh students to the Arabic Wikipedia twice a year. In terms of sustainability from the first term to the second term, we achieved great success at Ain Shams University, in which 100% of the professors (3/3) returned for the second term. Indeed, the program was also recognized by the vice dean of the Faculty of Al-Alsun (languages) as being an incredibly useful tool for language and translation instructors, and her support led the program to early institutionalization at Ain Shams. With support from university administration, it is likely that the program will continue growing in the Faculty of Al-Alsun without significant ongoing investment of inputs beyond volunteer hours.

At Cairo University, the professor retention was less of a success story; only 25% of the professors (1/4) returned for the second term. The two universities are very different, and it shows that the same exact plan may not work at the different universities, even in the same city. Determining how to scale the program effectively at Cairo University remains an ongoing challenge.

Scalability isn't just professor retention, though; another key aspect is volunteer leadership. In the program design phase, we paid a lot of attention to fostering volunteer leadership among our Ambassadors. Rather than leading the original Ambassador training ourselves, we worked with volunteer editors on the Arabic Wikipedia to have them develop appropriate curriculum. We created brochures and handouts that volunteers could use to recruit other volunteers; we gave ownership over the program to the volunteers on the ground. Half of the Campus Ambassadors from the spring pilot continued on in the fall, and four students from the first term became Campus Ambassadors. Seven of 17 Online Ambassadors from the first term elected to continue with the program in the second term. That means overall, 24 out of the 57 key volunteers (Campus Ambassadors, Online Ambassadors, and Professors) in the second term were returnees from the first term, an incredible feat when you also consider that the program expanded from 7 classes to 17 classes.

As the program transitioned from the first term to the second term, one of the most exciting elements was seeing the students from the first time wanting to become Ambassadors and help students in the next term of the program. Now, five of our original first term students serve as volunteer "Faculty Leaders", in charge of recruiting professors and Ambassadors at each of the university departments at Cairo University and Ain Shams University.

Future Picture[edit]

In the month since the final courses of the second term wrapped up and the writing of this report, the growth potential of the Wikipedia Education Program for the region seems exponential. Faris El-Gwely has made two trips to Jordan, and pilots for both a university program at Al-Isra University in Amman and a high school program at rural schools are kicking off in spring 2013. One professor in Algeria is also starting a small pilot in Algeria, and ongoing related work in Saudi Arabia has joined forces with the Wikipedia Education Program. The attractiveness of the program to residents of the region is high, and we believe the program has potential to make a massive difference on the Arabic Wikipedia.

We see the development of online training and the Education Program extension on the English Wikipedia as keys to scalability and measurement for the United States and Canada programs. We believe the translation and localization of these (and the completion of the localization of the Instructor Basic and Syllabus brochures, which have been translated but not localized), will ensure the program can continue to scale throughout the Arab World.

Open Questions[edit]

We haven't fixed every problem; some ongoing questions include:

  • What is the best ratio between program management from San Francisco and volunteer leadership on the ground?
    • How will future goals and strategies be set in the region?
    • How do we most effectively continue to encourage and support volunteer efforts, experiementation and success?
  • Will the program survive without a paid staff coordinator on the ground, given there is no chapter entity to coordinate physical things like space reservations, budget, printing brochures, receiving mail, etc.
  • How can we set better expectations for the region?
  • What is the most efficient way to communicate from one to many where potential tools and language barriers exist?


As stated previously, the Wikipedia Education Program Egypt has proven to be a low-cost investment that produces significant and real impact on the Arabic Wikipedia. Program costs represent less than 1% (.8%) of the overall WMF budget with much of the initial outlay in the first term going toward starting a program from scratch. The second term saw reduction of operational costs with an overall increase in student contributions. We have reason to believe based on our previous experiences with the United States and Canada programs that this trend line will continue.

Even with a small pilot and just two terms, students in the program added the equivalent of 2,620 pages of high quality content to the Arabic Wikipedia. Total students contributions accounted for approximately 3–5% of the overall growth on the Arabic Wikipedia. Additionally, one of our students is now in the top 100 editors on the Arabic Wikipedia. Women play a significant role in the Egypt program. With 87% female students participating, the program starts to address the gender diversity goals of the WMF Strategic Plan. At the time of this report, we are seeing increased interest, organic growth and expansion of Wikipedia educational activities throughout the Arab World.

The outcomes we've achieved have demonstrated that our program has had a significant positive impact on the Arabic Wikipedia, and we are making real change to one of the most under-used and under-developed Wikipedias (in relation to number of native speakers) in the world.

As we look forward, we know from the India and United States/Canada program lessons, we cannot pull out our support too quickly without first helping to stabilize the program, allowing it to mature and prepare a strategy plan for ongoing sustainability through local volunteer efforts. Continued investment in the Wikipedia Education Program in the region, we believe, will further our abilities to tap into the tremendous potential and opportunities for growth on the Arabic Wikipedia, while at the same time ensure that the program is set-up for continued success.

Learnings from this evaluation that will inform changes to the program design[edit]

We have learned several key things in completing our self-evaluation of the Wikipedia Education Program Egypt:

1) We have a deeper understanding and holistic view of the the program's operational gaps, challenges, and successes.

  • This will inform the program's future picture, its goals, and operational activities by local volunteers.
  • It will also drive our discussions and sharing of best practices with other programs.

2) By leveraging our previous experience and learnings from beginning other programs, we reduced the start-up cost for the Egypt pilot to just 16% of our first program, the Public Policy Initiative. This speaks directly to the operation efficiencies that we brought to the program.

3) In some areas, tracking of success is incomplete, e.g. outcomes of the workshops.

  • We will continue working with the technology team to further develop the education extension on MediaWiki and evaluation tools currently under development to ensure that appropriate data is being evaluated.
  • We will work with volunteer program leads to ensure they understand the benefits of evaluating their program and the importance to know what measurable data needs to be in place at the start of a program.

4) "Number of edits" is not an appropriate measure of success for content-focused programs.

  • We have started to collect data on the volume of student contributions as a key measure of impact on Wikipedia and program success. We will evaluate the criteria measures for "Active" and "Very Active" student contributors, establish solid measures and begin communicating their benefits.


  1. One of the people who started the Education Program as a Wikimedia Foundation staff member had organized and led many Wikipedia workshops before. Despite the fact that in the early days of programmatic outreach work (2006–2008) neither success metrics were clearly defined nor outcomes continuously tracked, anecdotal evidence indicated that all kinds of workshop-like events (even Wikipedia Academies that became more popular between 2006 and 2008) didn't turn significant amounts of workshop participants into Wikipedians.
  2. Four students from the spring term took classes in the fall term who participated in the program as well. For the purposes of this analysis, their edits after August 2012 have been included in the spring term cohort, although two of these four made no edits in the spring term.

Appendix: Tables[edit]

Table 1: Bytes added to Arabic Wikipedia article namespace by Wikipedia Education Program Egypt students[edit]

February 2012 March 2012 April 2012 May 2012 June 2012 July 2012 August 2012 September 2012 October 2012 November 2012 December 2012 January 2013 February 2013 March 2013 Total
Spring term students 24,297 56,585 288,877 684,558 489,677 309,747 1,853,741
Fall term students 33,001 21,889 226,506 843,932 1,167,985 2,209,124 1,467,879 5,970,316
Spring term students converted to contributors 4,050 5,729 857 1,217 82,245 165,586 13,533 54,625 327,842
Fall term students converted to contributors 187,960 187,960
Total 24,297 56,585 288,877 684,558 489,677 309,747 37,051 27,618 227,363 845,149 1,250,230 2,374,710 1,481,412 242,585 8,339,859

Table 2: Wikipedia Education Program Egypt student editors by edit count[edit]

February 2012 March 2012 April 2012 May 2012 June 2012 July 2012 August 2012 September 2012 October 2012 November 2012 December 2012 January 2013 February 2013 March 2013
Spring term, made 1-4 edits 1 3 13 9 4 2
Spring term, made 5-99 edits 1 2 9 16 10 5
Spring term, made 100+ edits 0 0 1 5 2 1
Fall term, made 1-4 edits 1 1 4 27 23 15 10
Fall term, made 5-99 edits 0 2 6 30 34 45 55
Fall term, made 100+ edits 1 1 2 13 6 11 7
Spring term students converted to editors, made 1-4 edits 1 1 0 0 3 0 0 1
Spring term students converted to editors, made 5-99 edits 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 1
Spring term students converted to editors, made 100+ edits 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Fall term students converted to editors, 1-4 edits 9
Fall term students converted to editors, 5-99 edits 13
Fall term students converted to editors, 100+ edits 1

Table 3: Wikipedia Education Program Egypt (Very Active editor versus Very Active contributor)[edit]

(100+ edits)
(5000+ characters)
February 2012 0 1
March 2012 0 2
April 2012 1 6
May 2012 5 19
June 2012 2 5
July 2012 1 6
August 2012 1 2
September 2012 1 1
October 2012 2 6
November 2012 13 27
December 2012 5 28
January 2013 11 42
February 2013 7 43
March 2013 1 8

Table 4: Wikipedia Education Program Egypt student editors by "Contributor User Class"[edit]

February 2012 March 2012 April 2012 May 2012 June 2012 July 2012 August 2012 September 2012 October 2012 November 2012 December 2012 January 2013 February 2013 March 2013
Spring term students, added 1–499 characters 0 1 6 3 1 0
Spring term students, added 500–4,999 characters 1 1 10 8 10 2
Spring term students, added 5,000+ characters 1 2 6 19 5 6
Fall term students, added 1–499 characters 1 0 3 5 7 9 7
Fall term students, added 500–4,999 characters 0 2 3 24 26 21 21
Fall term students, added 5,000+ characters 1 1 6 27 27 40 42
Spring term students converted to contributors, added 1–499 characters 0 0 2 3 3 0 2 1
Spring term students converted to contributors, added 500–4,999 characters 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Spring term students converted to contributors, added 5,000+ characters 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1
Fall term students converted to contributors, added 1–499 characters 6
Fall term students converted to contributors, added 500–4,999 characters 8
Fall term students converted to contributors, added 5,000+ characters 7