Erbstuecke/List of Erbstuecke
Examples of heirlooms
The inventor of sugar cube (patent 1843) is Jacob Christoph Rad, the Swiss-Austrian head of a sugar factory in Moravia.
A Frenchman invented a machine to cut sugar cubes in 1875. Around the year 1900 a Belgian invented another machine to produce sugar cubes.
In 1961, the Czech researcher Otto Wichterle succeeded in producing the first contact lenses made of hydrogel, with a home-made apparatus built using a children's chemistry kit, a motor of a record player and a bicycle dynamo.
Jacqueline Urbach produced the first soft lenses, off-the-shelf and made in Europe under the name "Urosoft" in Amsterdam in 1975.
Invented in the 1820s by the German Bohemian Josef Ressel from Chrudim, Bohemia, who also worked in today's Slovenia & Italy (Trieste).
Out of poverty Ressel later had to sell his propeller patent in France; in 1836, the English farmer F. Smith and shortly afterwards the Swedish engineer John Ericsson acquired patents for screw propellers.
|4||Dracula / Vampire:
The origin of the belief in vampires in Europe lies in the southeastern part of the continent. Dracula belongs to an "heirloom" that has driven its mischief in Transylvania - after all a region also with German, Hungarian and Romanian traces.
|5||Bicycle / Bike:
Current aspects of the bicycle: sustainable mobility, city bikes à la Vélo'v (Lyon) or Call a Bike (DB in Germany) in many European cities, "Bicycle Motorway" in Copenhagen, development of cycle paths + history of the bicycle.
The playground seems to be a matter of course at first glance, but it is not. While there are few or only unremarkable playgrounds in some European countries, in other countries they are important places with a variety of activities, including adventure playgrounds. Different pedagogical approaches, family structures etc. are reasons for that perception.
A medium initiated in Europe that has been existing for around 150 years in virtually all countries in a variety of forms.
|8||Eau de Cologne:
4711 - this number is the brand name for the first "Eau de Cologne", the most famous perfume in the world. Created by the Italian perfumier Giovanni Maria Farina in Cologne, sold by a German in the Glockengasse 4. At the time of the French occupation in the 18th century, the building was given the reference number "4711" as a house number.
|9||Architecture of Brutalism and Modernism:
Brutalist and modernist monuments and buildings in Bulgaria and the states of the former Yugoslavia.
Architectural buildings of Brutalism also exist in many other European countries, such as Austria, Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland.
Coffee houses are a place of quiet rest and conversation, casual encounter and silent observation. Since the 16th century, there are coffee houses all over Europe.
They allowed the emergence of a bourgeois public, made it possible for women to stay away from home for a while and today (also in the form of 'Starbucks') they are a place where the digital nomads pursue their work.
As first Intangible Cultural Heritage in Germany, the “idea and practice of organizing shared interests in cooperatives” has been added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2015. The cultural form of cooperatives is not a practice exclusively developed in Germany. Precursors existed among others in Great Britain, France and some Slavic countries. However, Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch and Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen laid crucial foundations in Germany in the mid-19th century, which still have a worldwide impact.
Already in the Classical antiquity and Middle Ages people went to health resorts, to do therapeutical bathing. Originated in England in the 18th century, since the 19th century therapeutic baths / health resorts / spas can be found all over the European continent as well, often at places with mineral springs or by the sea. Today, this tradition is increasingly mixed with "wellness".
The Würzburg Residence has been a World Heritage Site since 1981, it "represents a unique artistic realization by virtue of its ambitious program, the originality of creative spirit and the international character of its workshop" and is a "synthesis of European Baroque".
When thinking of the Würzburg Residence, one thinks of the Bavarian architect Balthasar Neumann, the Italian painter Tiepolo and the French architect Germain Boffrand.
Facilities for educating young children in pre-school age originated in the 19th century in the course of the social changes because of the Industrial Revolution. Kindergartens were created in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and other European countries.
In 1840 the pedagogue Friedrich Fröbel founded the first "General German Kindergarten" in Bad Blankenburg. The term "kindergarten" for childcare facilities has become established in many countries all over the world, e.g. in the Anglo-American language area.
|15||Way of Saint James:
The Camino de Santiago / Way of St. James is a network of pilgrims' ways through several European countries, each leading to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Spain) and the alleged tomb of the Apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral. The Way of St. James was first mentioned in documents in 1047. Since the 1970s, the pilgrimage on the Way of St. James has attracted a growing number of international pilgrims.
In 1987, the Council of Europe declared the Way of Saint James the first European Cultural Route.
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