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Inisiatif kesehatan komunitas/Peralatan pemblokiran dan peningkatan

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This page is a translated version of the page Community health initiative/Blocking tools and improvements and the translation is 53% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

This page documents a feature the Wikimedia Foundation's Anti-Harassment Tools team has committed to build.

🗣   We invite you to join the discussion!
🛠   Track in Phabricator at T120734.

Tim Anti-Pelecehan Yayasan Wikimedia mengundang semua Wikimedian untuk mendiskusikan alat pembatas baru dan perbaikan alat pemblokiran yang ada pada bulan Desember 2017 untuk pekerjaan pengembangannya pada awal tahun 2018.


September 11, 2019

Partial blocks has been enabled on all wikivoyage, wikisource and wiktionary wikis. We think the partial blocks feature is at a good, stable stage now as we have seen fewer and fewer bugs come up in the last few months of the feature being deployed on various projects. The team has spent a lot of time in improving the backend infrastructure of block code and made sure that the code is reliable, in anticipation of any future features that may need to be added.

There continues to be requests from more wikis for partial blocks. We also presented about partial blocks at Wikimania and it was very well-received, with several attendees asking for partial blocks to be enabled on their home wikis. In light of the general positive reception to partial blocks on wikis where it is deployed, we are planning to do a wider deployment to more Wikimedia projects in the next few weeks.

We will continue to collect feedback about partial blocks as we launch the feature on more wikis, alongside data collection on usage of the feature. We are also around to do maintenance work on the features, as and when needed.

March 1, 2019

Today I officially share the Wikimedia Foundation's Anti-Harassment Tools team's recommendations for tools to combat long-term abuse that occurs on our wikis. This 9-page document roughly defines the types of long-term abuse that occurs, outlines the existing tools and tactics used to mitigate and tolerate this behavior, investigates potential new softwares to combat this abuse (namely device blocking) and makes recommendations for next steps.

In brief, our recommendations are to avoid device blocking, as it would be an expensive endeavour with very low likelihood for successful impact. Instead, our team recommends alternate tactics including a user reporting system, improvements to CheckUser, additional muting features, and more.

An immediate byproduct of this research is that our team will work on extending cookie block functionality to the Visual and mobile editors. — phab:T196575

February 15, 2019

Initial feature development on partial blocks is complete! Admins can now set blocks that only prohibit editing on certain page(s) and/or namespace(s). The rollout will be slow and staged to ensure we didn't forget any important functionality.

January 18, 2019

I've compiled some data about how often the "you are blocked" messages appear to our users on Community health initiative/Blocking tools and improvements/Block notices. There are some graphs and a table of raw data as well as some synthesized findings. Here are the main takeaways:

  • Block notices appear very often on the largest Wikimedia projects, sometimes outnumbering actual edits. (6.2 million blocked edits occured on English Wikipedia over a 30-day period.)
  • The desktop wikitext editor sees the vast majority of impressions by a wide margin. (98% on English Wikipedia, 89.5% on Spanish, and 98.7% on Russian.)
  • The VisualEditor and mobile block notices may occur less frequently, but still display to thousands of people every month. There are hurdles to optimizing their displays, given the legacy of desktop-first design.

January 16, 2019

Partial Blocks have been enabled on Italian Wikipedia! 🎉 We're looking for more Wikipedias to test, please leave us a talk page message if your community is willing to test! More information can be found at the project page.

Also of note is that our team is currently looking into potential software solutions to mitigate Long-Term Abuse on Wikimedia. We are exploring some ideas listed in § Problem 1. Username or IP address blocks are easy to evade by sophisticated users above. We are aiming for our preliminary investigation to be complete by the end of February and will publish all notes and findings here on Meta Wiki.

December 20

Partial blocks are still in development. They are enabled on Test Wikipedia and will be enabled on Italian Wikipedia in January.

Data on the "you are blocked" messages is visible on this graph for seven wikis (more to be added soon.) I'll be spending this afternoon digging into some correlated block data to see if there are any interesting insights. For now, the most insightful things are: 1) far-and-away most people learn they are blocked on desktop via the wikitext editor 2) except on German Wikipedia, which has an incredibly high count of API blocks and 3) rough back-of-napkin calculations show that mobile block notices appear relative to desktop site notices the same as general edit trends (~95% of edits are from desktop editors.) Depending on what I have by the end of today I may post an addendum here.

One final note about blocking to close our 2018: in the next year my team will begin looking into device blocking, which was outlined and discussed as Problem 1. Username or IP address blocks are easy to evade by sophisticated users. We aim to make a proposal to the Wikimedia Board of Trustees in early 2019.

December 5

Our team is still working on addressing the final defects before we enable Partial Blocks on Italian Wikipedia. We're optimistic that we can hit this milestone next week! In the meantime testing is available on Test Wikipedia and Test Wikidata for users interested in taking a look at what's ready so far. We're also confident that we can get Namespace blocks to a near-ready state by the end of December, before we break for the winter holidays. That functionality should be ready on Test Wiki in January.

Yesterday we enabled tracking on the block notice messages that appear to users — a.k.a. the "You are blocked" messages. The data is visible on this graph. This data is currently only being measured on Italian Wikipedia but we plan to enable it on 19 more wikis next week. We will be able to compare this to the other known block data to better understand how often blocked users attempt to edit. This should inform our decisions on if or how to improve these messages and unblock workflows for users.

November 8

Partial blocks are live on Test Wikipedia and Test Wikidata! If you're an admin on another wiki and would like to test the functionality please write a message on our talk page.

This first feature set is limited: admins can block an user or IP from editing up to 10 specified pages. There are some known defects that we're currently working on (for example, if an admin is partially blocked from a page they can't delete any page.) and we'll get back to building namespace and upload blocks in later November.

If you're testing partial blocks we'd love to hear from you! Drop us a note about your experience with the tool. We're looking specifically for feedback about:

  • What is an appropriate limit of the number of pages a user should be blocked from? In the first version limit is 10, but it can any number.
  • Are you satisfied with how partial blocks are logged?
  • Do we need to change anything that has already been built?
  • Is the warning message in the VisualEditor too gentle?

Thank you!

August 22, 2018

As part of our work on Partial Blocks (phab:T2674) we've have determined that we also need to build a system that allows for multiple simultaneous blocks to be set against a single account (user or IP) to allow communities to set different sanctions of different expiration dates. (For example, a user could have an indefinite block from uploading files but a 24-hour sitewide block.) We are referring to this work as multi-blocks and this work can be tracked in phab:T194697. Another round of designs are underway and will be shared next week on the project page.

For those interested in the technical side of blocks, we're holding a technical RFC about database changes we plan to make. A summary of our changes can be found at phab:T199917.

June 28, 2018

Over the past several months the Wikimedia Foundation's Anti-Harassment Tools team has been working on improvements to blocking tools. We recently added a datetime selector to the Special:Block tool to make it easier to set precise block expirations (phab:T132220). We also upgraded the notice that appears to inform users on mobile devices that they are blocked (phab:T165535). To make blocks stronger, we've expanded cookie blocking to IP blocks to make it more difficult for people to evade their block (phab:T152462).

We investigated building a way for administrators to block users by a hashed combination of browser information but decided it would not be effective without capturing more data during edit sessions (phab:T188160). Because of this we've decided to not pursue this feature at this time. Rather, we've prepared tickets to give CheckUsers the ability to block by IP address or IP range and browser user agent (phab:T100070). This work is prepared and ready to build, just awaiting prioritization.

Our team is currently working on building Partial Blocks, or the ability for administrators to block a user from just a specific page, all pages inside a namespace, or from uploading files. We believe this will allow more tactical sanctions to be set for troublesome users who are productive on other parts of the wiki. (phab:T2674) You can follow that project and see designs at Community health initiative/Per-user page, namespace, and upload blocking.

Fungsionalitas pemblokiran MediaWiki saat ini

Saat ini di wiki Wikimedia, pengguna dan IP dapat diblokir dari penyuntingan artikel.[1] Pemblokiran melarang pengguna mengedit semua halaman di semua ruang nama di wiki, dengan pengecualian opsional dari halaman user_talk pihak yang diblokir. Pemblokiran diizinkan secara baku kepada pengurus dan dicatat secara publik di Special:Log, Special:BlockList, dan Special:Block.

Sama dengan pemblokiran, penguncian akun global mencegah pengguna untuk masuk log ke semua wiki Wikimedia, dan pemblokiran global mencegah pengguna dari masuk ke semua wiki Wikimedia, dan pemblokiran global dan diatur untuk alamat IP.

Pemblokiran otomatis dan diatur kepada pemblokiran nama pengguna, yang akan memblokir secara otomatis alamat IP yang digunakan oleh pengguna ybs. selama 24 jam.

Masalah 1. Pemblokiran nama pengguna atau alamat IP mudah dilangkahi oleh pengguna yang pintar

Pemblokiran dapat diatur pada alamat pengguna, alamat IP, atau rentang IP. Alamat IP bisa dengan mudah ditipu atau diubah via proksi. Hambatan untuk membuat akun baru sangat rendah dan mudah untuk dihindari. Gerakan Wikimedia menghargai keterbukaan dan privasi, sehingga kita harus menyeimbangkan pemusnahan pelaku jahat agar platform kita dapat diakses oleh pendatang baru yang berniat baik.

Kita bisa menerapkan teknik pemblokiran baru yang menggunakan teknologi identifikasi yang berbeda dan modern. Fitur ini harus sesuai dengan keinginan Kebijakan Privasi dan Syarat Penggunaan kami.

Usulan solusi yang memungkinkan:

  • Diblokir menurut agen pengguna (user agent)[2][3][4] (termasuk pencarian PemeriksaPengguna)
  • Pemblokiran menurut ID perangkat (termasuk pencarian PemeriksaPengguna)
  • Pemblokiran global nama pengguna[5]
  • Tambahkan "Pembuatan akun dimatikan" ke pemblokiran global[6]
  • Pemblokiran kuki bagi pengguna anonim[7]
  • Tambahkan sebuah cara untuk memperpanjang pemblokiran otomatis menjadi lebih dari 1 hari[8]
  • Proaktif pemblokiran global terhadap proksi terbuka
  • Hash personally identifiable data to surface as a percentage match to CheckUser[9]
  • AI that compares editing patterns and language to predict possible sockpuppets[9]
  • Identify sockpuppets by typing patterns (e.g. rhythm/speed), network speed, and editing patterns (e.g. time of day, edit session length, categories of pages edited)[9]
  • Display all contributions made within an IP range on one feed (aka 'Range Contributions')[9][10]
  • Extend Nuke to IP ranges[9]

Masalah 2. Pemblokiran yang tergesa-gesa dapat mencegah suntingan dari pengguna yang berniat baik

Banyak IP dan rentang IP digunakan oleh banyak pengguna (seperti perpustakaan, sekolah, kantor) dan sebagian besar IP individu dan (dan akan) diberikan oleh ISP kepada pengguna lainnya. Bila IP atau rentang IP seorang pengguna yang jahat diblokir, pengguna lain tidak dapat menyunting. Beberapa pemblokiran IP mengizinkan penyuntingan dari akun yang masuk log, dan nama pengguna yang baik dapat dikecualikan dari pemblokiran IP yang membatasi penyuntingan dari akun yang masuk log.

Kita dapat menerapkan fitur baru yang mencegah IP dari penyuntingan atau membuat akun sementara, tetapi mengizinkan pengguna berniat baik untuk membuat akun dan menyunting secara produktif.

Solusi potensial yang diajukan:

  • Memerlukan semua akun yang dibuat dalam rentang IP untuk mengonfirmasikan alamat surel sebelum menyunting
  • Mencegah penggunaan (atau insiden penandaan) daftar hitam alamat surel agar tidak dikaitkan dengan akun pengguna baru
  • Membatasi pembuatan akun dan pengiriman surel menurut peramban dan alamat IP[11][3]
  • Require email address to be unique for edits in certain IP ranges (potentially requiring whitelisted email domains)[9]
  • Allow CheckUsers to compare hashed email addresses[9]
  • Build AI that automatically sets a block length and type based on UserAgent, IP and/or email[9]
  • Require two-factor authentication for edits in certain IP ranges[9]
  • Convert Twinkle and/or Huggle from gadgets to extensions, increase their accuracy[9]

Masalah 3. Pemblokiran situs secara penuh tidak selalu merupakan respons yang cocok dalam beberapa situasi

Pembokiran yang lebih kecil dan lebih taktis dapat meredakan situasi sambil mempertahankan kontributor yang suntingannya membangun. Pada beberapa wiki seperti Wikipedia bahasa Inggris, konsep ini diatur oleh larangan. Namun, sarana teknis untuk memberlakukan larangan saat ini masih terbatas, dan akibatnya pengguna mungkin tidak perlu diblokir untuk mengedit wiki secara keseluruhan.

Pemblokiran situs secara penuh mirip dengan palu godam. Bagaimana kita bisa membangun pemukul lalat untuk mencegah pengguna yang membuat kerusakan yang terbatas sekaligus menjaga mereka sebagai bagian dari wiki tersebut.

Solusi potensial yang disarankan:

  • Blokir pengguna dari…
    • …halaman tunggal[12][13][14][15]
    • …semua halaman dalam kategori tertentu
    • …ruang nama tertentu[16]
    • …membuat halaman baru
    • …mengunggah berkas[17]
    • …semua halaman kecuali halaman pembicaraan[18][19]
    • …semua halaman, kecuali dalam daftar putih
    • …melihat Istimewa:Kontribusi
    • …mengirim surel atau menyebut pengguna lain[20][21]
  • Izinkan pengurus untuk menentukan hak akses mana untuk memblokir.[22][23][24][25]
  • Izinkan pengurus untuk mencabut sementara status pengguna terkonfirmasi otomatis.[19]
  • Mengharuskan semua suntingan oleh seorang pengguna melalui perubahan tertunda.[26]
  • Pemblokiran yang akan kedaluwarsa ketika seorang pengguna telah membaca halaman tertentu (modul pelatihan, halaman pembicaraan pengguna, dll.)[27][28]
  • Allow admins to throttle a user's edits to a maximum number per day/hour/etc[9]
  • Build a version AbuseFilter that runs on all edits of specified users to create custom, complex blocks[9]
  • Tool to prevent users from writing about themselves.[9]
  • User masking systems to obfuscate or ‘hide’ users from each other on wiki[9]

Masalah 4. Peralatan untuk mengatur, mengawasi, dan mengatur pemblokiran memiliki kesempatan untuk peningkatan produktivitas

Alat pemblokiran yang ada (Special:Block, API, Twinkle, Special:BlockList, dll.) digunakan setiap hari oleh banyak pengguna di semua wiki Wikimedia. Penggunaan alat ini bisa sangat intensif, jadi kami ingin menggali gagasan tentang bagaimana kita dapat menyederhanakan alur kerja untuk mengatur atau memodifikasi pemblokiran, memantau log pemblokiran, dan memeriksa status atau rincian pemblokiran.

Solusi potensial disarankan:

  • Saat meninggalkan peringatan di halaman pembicaraan pengguna, tampilkan berapa peringatan lainnya yang pernah diberikan kepada pengguna itu.[29]
  • Twinkle secara otomatis akan mengetahui templat peringatan yang tepat untuk digunakan pada pengguna itu.
  • Log bans like blocks, which could result showing the information on their user page, contributions, or autogenerate a list of all banned users.[30]
  • Allow CheckUsers to watch specific IPs[31]
  • Allow admins to annotate previous blocks as accidental[32][33][34]
  • Allow admins to set a block date range via datetime selector[35]
  • Allow admins to set different expiration times for blocking editing vs. account creation[36]
  • Izinkan pengurus untuk menyembunyikan nama pengguna ketika memblokirnya[37]
  • Tampilkan kedaluwarsa pemblokiran dalam log[38]
  • Tampilkan peringatan di halaman pemblokiran saat pengurus memblokir IP sensitif[39]
  • Special:Block could suggest block length for common policy infractions[9]
  • Improved way to set mass blocks[9]
  • Block appeal process could be improved to reduce the work required for admins[9]
  • Display if a user is currently blocked on another wiki on Special:Block[9]
  • Mobile block notices are abysmal[9][40]
  • Allow admins to ‘pause’ a block so the user can participate in on-wiki discussions[9]

Lihat pula

  • /Links — A list of links on Meta Wiki, MediaWiki.org, and Phabricator about existing blocking tools or suggestions for improvements.
  • /English Wikipedia policies — A list of links on English Wikipedia about blocking policies or tools, and talk page conversations about improvements.
  • /Block notices — Data about how often the "you are blocked" notices appear to people attempting to edit a wiki.
  • Community health initiative/Editing restrictions — The WMF's Anti-Harassment Tools team's documentation page about how new tools could support the socially enforced editing restrictions used by English Wikipedia.
  • Community health initiative/Partial blocks — Project page for partial blocks, which allow admins to prevent a user from editing specific page(s) or namespace(s).


  1. Help:Blocking_users di MediaWiki.org
  2. T100070 — Mengizinkan pemblokiran IP berdasarkan agen pengguna
  3. a b Survei Keinginan Komunitas 2015/Moderasi dan peralatan pengurus#Peningkatan alat pemblokiran MediaWiki
  4. Survei Keinginan Komunitas 2015/Pemblokiran pintar
  5. Prioritas dari butir-butir tindakan, kunjungan Steward 2015, halaman 9
  6. T17273 — Mohon tambahkan "Pembuatan akun dimatikan" ke pemblokiran global
  7. T152462 — Tambahkan kuki ketika memblokir pengguna anonim
  8. T27305 — Tambahkan sebuah cara untuk memperpanjang pemblokiran otomatis menjadi lebih dari 1 hari
  9. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Talk:Community health initiative/Blocking tools and improvements
  10. phab:T145912
  11. T106930 — Membatasi pembuatan akun dan pengiriman surel menurut peramban dan alamat IP
  12. T2674 – Buat pengguna terblokir dari penyuntingan sebuah artikel tertentu
  13. Lihat pula: Community health initiative/Editing restrictions
  14. 2015 Community Wishlist Survey/Moderation and admin tools#Enhanced per-user, per-article protection/blocking
  15. 2017 Community Wishlist Survey/Per-page user blocking
  16. T179110 — Buat pengguna terblokir dari penyuntingan ruang nama tertentu
  17. T6995 — Kemampuan untuk memblokir pengguna hanya dalam pengunggahan berkas
  18. T18644 — Buat pengguna terblokir dari penyuntingan hanya pada halaman selain halaman pembicaraan
  19. a b Wikipedia talk:Blocking policy/Archive 21 di Wikipedia bahasa Inggris
  20. Saat ini masih memungkinkan memblokir seseorang dari penggunaan Special:EmailUser, namun hal ini juga mengharuskan pemblokiran mereka dari penyuntingan
  21. T104099 — Tambahkan kemampuan untuk memblokir pengguna dari pengiriman surel kepada pengguna lain (tanpa memerlukan pemblokiran penuh)
  22. T27400 — Perangkat lunak harus mengizinkan pengurus memberikan hak akses pengguna tertentu untuk menyunting halaman tertentu melalui pemblokiran
  23. Pemblokiran lanjutan di MediaWiki.org
  24. Wikipedia talk:Blocking policy/Archive 23 di Wikipedia bahasa Inggris
  25. 2017 Community Wishlist Survey/Allow further user block options ("can edit XY" etc.)
  26. 2016 Community Wishlist Survey/Categories/Moderation tools#All edits from hardblocked IP mark as unreviewed
  27. T18447 — Atur pemblokiran yang hanya akan kedaluwarsa ketika seorang telah membaca halaman tertentu (modul pelatihan, halaman pembicaraan pengguna, dll.)
  28. Wikipedia talk:Blocking policy/Archive 22 di Wikipedia bahasa Inggris
  29. Wikipedia talk:Administrators' noticeboard/Archive 8#Warnings and discussion before blocks di Wikipedia bahasa Inggris
  30. Wikipedia talk:Banning policy/Archive 3#Recording of Bans on English Wikipedia
  31. T21796CheckUser watchlist feature
  32. T46759Allow marking blocks that were made in error
  33. 2016 Community Wishlist Survey/Categories/Admins and stewards#Enable administrators to update block logs
  34. Wikipedia talk:Blocking policy/Archive 20 on English Wikipedia
  35. T132220Add datetime selector to block and protect interface to select expiration
  36. T65238 — Panjang yang berlainan dari pemblokiran dan pemblokiran pembuatan akun
  37. 2016 Community Wishlist Survey/Categories/Admins and stewards#Allow admins to hide names of users while blocking them
  38. T148649 — Tampilkan entri untuk halaman dalam daftar pantauan saat perlindungan halaman telah kedaluarsa; Tampilkan entri di halaman pengguna saat pemblokiran pengguna telah kedaluarsa
  39. T151484 — Tampilkan peringatan di halaman pemblokiran saat pengurus memblokir IP sensitif
  40. phab:T165535