Jump to content

Pedoman konflik kepentingan untuk organisasi dalam gerakan Wikimedia

From Meta, a Wikimedia project coordination wiki
This page is a translated version of the page Conflict of interest guide for Wikimedia movement organizations and the translation is 36% complete.

Konflik kepentingan terjadi apabila Anda memiliki kepentingan pribadi atau finansial yang bersaing dengan kewajiban Anda kepada misi Wikimedia. Jika Anda memiliki kewajiban kepada sebuah organisasi Wikimedia, kewajiban itu adalah yang terutama harus Anda laksanakan. Kepentingan pribadi lainnya harus tidak mempengaruhi daya Anda untuk mengambil keputusan yang terbaik untuk kepentingan organisasi Wikimedia Anda.

Pedoman ini berfokus pada konflik kepentingan dari perspektif tata kelola, meliputi ketika apakah Anda memiliki hubungan luar yang dapat mengganggu kewajiban Anda untuk bertindak memajukan kepentingan terbaik Wikimedia. Pedoman ini mengandung perspektif dari WMF, dan bukan merupakan suatu nasihat hukum. Kandungan pedoman ini tidak dimaksudkan sebagai suatu daftar rekomendasi yang lengkap, tetapi akan membantu Anda untuk mengambil langkah pertama dalam mengidentifikasi dan mengelola konflik kepentingan. Harap dicatat bahwa yurisdiksi hukum tertentu mungkin memiliki persyaratan yang berbeda atau memiliki tambahan. Jika Anda merasa membutuhkan saran untuk keadaan pribadi Anda, silakan hubungi seorang penasihat hukum.

Langkah 1: Mengidentifikasi konflik kepentingan.

Anda berpotensi memiliki konflik kepentingan jika Anda membuat keputusan tentang sumber daya gerakan Wikimedia, dan keputusan Anda itu juga akan memengaruhi kepentingan pribadi Anda. Sumber daya gerakan Wikimedia mencakup semua jenis keuntungan finansial atau pribadi, seperti hibah, waktu kerja staf, beasiswa, lisensi merek dagang, kesempatan kerja, penggantian biaya perjalanan, dan sumber daya konferensi. Namun, jika manfaatnya terlalu tidak berwujud atau tidak signifikan untuk dapat memengaruhi pengambilan keputusan Anda, hal ini tidak akan memicu konflik kepentingan.

Kepentingan pribadi mencakup hubungan finansial atau pribadi dengan organisasi lain, seperti pekerjaan dan kepemilikan, dan termasuk pekerjaan dan kepemilikan keluarga dekat Anda. Semakin dekat hubungan, akan semakin besar pula kemungkinan untuk menciptakan konflik kepentingan. Hubungan dekat, seperti hubungan keluarga, mitra bisnis, dan teman baik, kemungkinan besar akan memunculkan konflik.

Jenis konflik kepentingan yang besar meliputi:

  • Pendanaan, kontrak, atau perekrutan untuk kepentingan pribadi: Anda tidak boleh menggunakan posisi Anda dalam suatu organisasi untuk memengaruhi keputusan untuk memberikan pendanaan kepada organisasi lain di mana Anda (atau mitra bisnis atau anggota keluarga Anda) memiliki kepentingan kepemilikan finansial; atau memberikan pekerjaan kepada teman, mitra bisnis, atau anggota keluarga tanpa melalui proses perekrutan yang normal.
  • Pengaruh yang tidak patut: Anda tidak boleh menerima keuntungan pribadi (seperti uang atau bantuan pribadi) sebagai imbalan untuk memengaruhi aktivitas organisasi Anda atau mempromosikan kepentingan orang atau entitas lain dalam organisasi.
  • Penyalahgunaan informasi atau properti: Anda tidak boleh menggunakan informasi atau properti yang dapat Anda akses dalam organisasi, yang tidak boleh dilakukan orang lain, untuk keuntungan pribadi (seperti uang atau bantuan pribadi).
  • Menerima manfaat yang tidak semestinya: Anda tidak boleh menerima hadiah atau bantuan penting yang menimbulkan kewajiban kepada orang yang memberikannya kepada Anda.

Langkah 2: Menata konflik kepentingan.

Being in a conflict of interest is not itself unethical—it is how you handle a conflict of interest that may raise ethical issues. Conflict of interest problems are not uncommon and can often be avoided (or managed) by vetting the decision through existing procedures. Please recognize that legally managing a conflict of interest may have other rules in your jurisdiction, so you should consult an attorney if you have a significant conflict.

Remember to always:

  • Actively disclose potential conflicts of interest. Strive to achieve a "culture of candor" where people feel free to discuss possible conflicts when they are unsure. Record your disclosures for reference by your organization's directors.
  • Discuss whether a conflict of interest exists. Discuss the potential conflict of interest, and decide whether one actually exists, without the participation or presence of the interested person. Please note, the board may still ask the interested person for information about the conflict so it can make the proper decision. If you are still unsure, we recommend you seek local legal advice.
  • Exclude the interested person from the decision making. An interested person should not participate in voting or otherwise exert influence over the decision. In some situations, they may need to leave the room during the vote on issues they have a conflict with.
  • Exercise due diligence when making the decision. The organization should research alternatives that do not present a conflict (if possible). Otherwise, decide if the decision is in the organization's best interest and whether it is fair and reasonable to the organization (e.g., is it the best price? Is this person the most qualified candidate for the job?). Record the process and basis that you used to reach this decision.

Consider taking some preemptive steps to avoid future conflicts of interest:

  • Implement a gift policy to avoid the appearance of bias. Consider prohibiting staff and board members from accepting gifts, money, or gratuities from: (1) anyone receiving benefits or services from the organization; (2) any person or business performing or looking to perform a service under contract with the organization; (3) any person who is otherwise in a position of receiving a benefit from the actions of an employee.

Bacaan lanjut

Contoh praktis

The following examples generally create a potential for a conflict of interest:

Chapter members sit on a Wikimedia advisory committee, such as the Funds Dissemination Committee, and decide a matter that impacts their chapter.

  • In this example, the chapter member has a potential conflict between their duty to the Wikimedia Board and the chapter, which are two separate entities. In this case, the committee member should manage the potential conflict by recusing from any decisions that may affect their chapter.

Chapter officials (e.g., President) uses his title to achieve private gain, like sending an official chapter email to ask for a grant to an organization that his wife heads up.

  • This presents a potential conflict between the personal interests of the official and their duty to their chapter. Even if the chapter official discloses the private gain to the chapter's board, he or she (or his or her family) must not receive any personal benefit.

The Wikimedia Foundation seeks to enter a contract with a board member's employer.

  • The board member has a personal interest (their employer's financial interest) that may compete with their role on the board. Therefore, under the WMF's conflict of interest policy, the interested board member must be recused from any decisions about the contract.

The following examples generally do not present conflict of interest issues:

Board members decide on procedural matters that may affect their seat on the board (e.g. changing the number of seats on the board or selecting board officers).

  • Board members have an obligation to vote on decisions that will affect the overall structure of the organization, even if it may have some consequences for their position within the organization. Board members may not need to be recused from these decisions, although they should make a decision in the best interest of the organization, and not their own personal interest.

Committees within a single organization working together.

  • Communications among staff and committees of an organization are not precluded by a conflict of interest, simply because of the focused mandate of the committee or staff. The WMF staff and committees are required to serve the same mission, ultimately report to the WMF Board, and do not have competing interests.

Decisions affecting an acquaintance or casual friend.

  • If the relationship is nothing beyond a general acquaintance, and there is no exchange of goods of value or exchange of promises, recusal is normally not necessary. Working with people we already know is merely evidence of a strong network, which is a positive thing for our movement.