Wikimania 2013 bids/Manila
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- 1 The city
- 2 Conference venue
- 3 Accommodation
- 4 Party opportunities
- 5 Travel and transportation
- 6 Local sponsorship opportunities
- 7 Local team
- 8 Miscellaneous
- 9 Self-evaluation
- 10 Gallery
- 11 Notes and references
NOTE: Some parts of this summary were lifted from the article Manila on the English Wikipedia.
Manila (Filipino: Maynila) is the capital of the Philippines. It is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay, bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati to the southeast and Pasay to the south.
The City of Manila itself has a total population of more than 1,660,714 people according to the 2007 national census, making it the second-most populous city in the Philippines behind Quezon City. The population inhabits an area of only 38.55 square kilometers, making Manila the most densely populated city in the world. Metro Manila, the metropolitan area surrounding the city, is the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines and the 11th in the world, with an estimated population of around 16.3 million people. The greater urban area is the fifth-largest in the world, with an estimated metropolitan population of around 20.7 million people.
Manila is ranked as a Beta+ world city, the second-wealthiest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia according to PricewaterhouseCoopers (behind Singapore), and the cheapest city in Southeast Asia for foreigners to live in, ranking 126th in the 2009 Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living rankings, below all other major cities in the region. The city also has 38 sister cities, including Wikimania host cities Taipei (2007) and Haifa (2011).
Famously given the names "Pearl of the Orient", "Queen of the Orient", "The City of Our Affections" and "Distinguished and Ever Loyal City", among others, Manila is a vibrant center of commerce, culture, education and politics in Southeast Asia. It has historically served as the staging point for the Manila galleons which connected the New World with China, and the Port of Manila is still one of Southeast Asia's busiest ports. The city still boasts a rich culture mixing Malay, Indian, Chinese, Spanish and American influences, particularly reflected in its numerous historical buildings, museums and churches despite the widespread destruction of the city in the Battle of Manila during World War II. As the capital of the Philippines, Manila is also the microcosm of the Philippines' unique culture, offering glimpses into the cultures of the peoples that collectively form the Philippines.
Manila is located on the shores of Manila Bay. The city is built around Intramuros, the original walled city built by the Spanish in the 16th century, located on the southern banks of the Pasig River, which bisects the city into two. The city's sixteen districts are evenly divided between both halves of the city, with most tourist attractions concentrated in the southern half.
Many historical buildings and museums are found in Ermita, the district immediately outside Intramuros. Places such as the National Museum (formerly the Legislative Building), the Manila City Hall, the Manila Central Post Office and the Manila Metropolitan Theater are found along Padre Burgos Street, while Rizal Park, the U.S. Embassy and the Manila Hotel are located along Roxas Boulevard, one of southern Manila's main thoroughfares. Ermita and the neighboring district of Malate are popularly referred to as Manila's "Tourist Belt", with many hotels, shops and bars present in the area, centered in particular around the Adriatico Circle. SM City Manila and Robinsons Place Manila, the city's two major malls, are also in this area.
North of Intramuros, on the northern banks of the Pasig River, is Binondo, Manila's historical Chinatown. With a continuous Chinese presence since 1594, Binondo is the world's oldest Chinatown, and is still a center of commerce as it was over the last 400 years. Divisoria, Manila's largest shopping district, is found here, as well as Escolta Street, the original "Wall Street of the Philippines", where many businesses were once headquartered. Near Binondo is Quiapo, home of the Quiapo Church, Manila's Muslim quarter, centered around the Masjid Al-Dahab (Golden Mosque), and historical landmarks such as the preserved Spanish houses of Hidalgo Street and Plaza Miranda. Both districts are separated by Santa Cruz, which contains historically significant buildings and the city's main northern thoroughfare, Rizal Avenue (Avenida Rizal). The remaining ten districts of Manila extend outward from the city center.
Beyond Manila proper, Metro Manila contains fifteen additional cities and one independent municipality, Pateros. The metropolitan area is divided into four non-administrative districts according to their location along the Pasig River, with Manila forming its own district. Important cities within Metro Manila include Makati, the Philippines' premier financial district, Pasay, home of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and the Cultural Center of the Philippines, and Quezon City, where most Philippine government offices are headquartered.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila features a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C or higher than 38 °C. However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through April, and a relatively lengthy wet season from May through December.
|Weather data from the BBC|
|Mean temperature - maximum||33°C (91°F)||31°C (88°F)||31°C (88°F)|
|Mean temperature - minimum||24°C (75°F)||24°C (75°F)||24°C (75°F)|
|Mean total precipitation||254 mm||432 mm||422 mm|
|Mean days with rainfall||17||24||23|
The following venues are under consideration for a Manila Wikimania bid:
- Asian Institute of Management
- National Museum of the Philippines
- Philippine International Convention Center
- SMX Convention Center
- Location of main accommodation facilities
- (where can the attendees be hosted. On site, off site, how far from conference venue? For attendees? For VIPs?)
- Room details and price range
- (What's the accommodation like? Dorms, B&B, Hotel? Singles, doubles? How much does it cost per person and per day?)
- Catering (one meal a day, breakfast is a plus)
- (Where do we eat, how much it costs)
- Contacts with accommodation partner(s)
- (Have you contacted the proposed locations, exchange of emails, price quotes etc.)
Wikimania traditionally hosts two parties, one for attendees (capacity of 250-350) and one for sponsors and VIPs (capacity 40-60).
- Attendees party(ies) propositions
- (location, how to get there, what's cool and relaxed about it)
- Sponsor party(ies) proposition
- (location, how to get there, what's chic and high profile about it)
Travel and transportation
The Philippines has one of the world's most liberal visa policies, with citizens from 152 countries and territories being allowed to enter the country without a visa for stays not exceeding 7, 21 or 59 days. In principle, countries which maintain diplomatic relations with the Philippines and whose nationals are not restricted nationals may enter the country without a visa.
Citizens of the following countries do not need a visa to enter the Philippines:
Citizens of all countries listed above are allowed to stay in the Philippines for 21 days without a visa, excluding Brazilians and Israelis, who may stay for 59 days. Holders of Hong Kong SAR, British National (Overseas), Macau SAR and Portuguese passports issued in Macau may stay in the Philippines for seven days without a visa.
- Need a visa but can't get one? - The Bureau of Immigration has begun implementing the Visa Upon Arrival Program (VUAP), which allows restricted nationals to obtain a Philippine entry visa upon arrival. Visas obtained under the VUAP must be pre-arranged in Manila before arriving.
- Are you below 15? - To prevent child trafficking, Philippine law mandates that persons under the age of fifteen who are either arriving unaccompanied or are not accompanied by their parents may be denied entry into the Philippines. It is possible to obtain a "waiver of exclusion ground" (WEG) which grants entry to underage minors, which must also be pre-arranged in Manila before arriving.
Getting to Manila
Manila is served by two major airports. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), located nine kilometers south of Manila proper, is the city's principal airport. It is the Philippines' busiest airport and a major Southeast Asian hub, with direct service to 42 international destinations in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. NAIA also serves as the hub for flights to the rest of the country, serving over 30 towns and cities throughout the archipelago.
The airport is divided into four terminals, of which three serve passengers entering the Philippines via Manila:
Terminal 1, which serves all foreign airlines
The airport complex is served by frequent bus and jeepney service to points throughout Metro Manila, and a shuttle service connects all four terminals.
The following table lists the cheapest estimated ticket prices for Manila for one adult, inclusive of taxes, as computed using the ITA Software Trip Planner for bookings made a few months in advance. These are not necessarily the cheapest available ticket prices: several destinations, particularly in Asia, are served by low-cost carriers, and airlines frequently have seat sales which lower ticket prices further. Cities with non-stop service to Manila on low-cost carriers are highlighted in blue.
|Auckland||USD 1,279 (approx. ¥ 118,423 / € 955 / £ 857)||Malaysia Airlines||17h40/16h45||Transfer in Kuala Lumpur. There is a cheaper one-stop option on Jetstar Asia Airways, but with a longer layover.|
|Bangkok||USD 265 (approx. ¥ 24,537 / € 198 / £ 178)||Kuwait Airways||3h20|
|Beijing||USD 457 (approx. ¥ 42,314 / € 342 / £ 307)||China Southern Airlines||5h40||Stops in Xiamen. There are non-stop flights available on other airlines.|
|Delhi||USD 696 (approx. ¥ 64,443 / € 520 / £ 467)||China Southern Airlines||9h45/11h30||Transfer in Guangzhou. There are non-stop flights available on Philippine Airlines.|
|Dubai||USD 560 (approx. ¥ 51,851 / € 419 / £ 376)||Gulf Air||15h5/14h55||Transfer in Manama. There are non-stop flights available on Emirates.|
|Hong Kong||USD 245 (approx. ¥ 22,685 / € 183 / £ 165)||Philippine Airlines||2h|
|Jakarta||USD 417 (approx. ¥ 38,611 / € 312 / £ 280)||Philippine Airlines||4h/6h25||Stops in Singapore on the return.|
|Kuala Lumpur||USD 310 (approx. ¥ 28,703 / € 232 / £ 208)||Jetstar Asia Airways||11h5/9h5||Transfer in Singapore. There are non-stop flights available on other airlines.|
|Seoul||USD 558 (approx. ¥ 51,666 / € 417 / £ 374)||China Southern Airlines||7h35/8h35||Transfer in Guangzhou. There are non-stop flights available on other airlines.|
|Singapore||USD 273 (approx. ¥ 25,278 / € 204 / £ 183)||Jetstar Asia Airways||3h35|
|Sydney||USD 1,053 (approx. ¥ 97,498 / € 787 / £ 706)||China Southern Airlines||15h40/18h35||Transfer in Guangzhou. There are non-stop flights available on other airlines.|
|Taipei||USD 523 (approx. ¥ 48,425 / € 391 / £ 351)||Philippine Airlines||2h10|
|Tel Aviv||USD 1,346 (approx. ¥ 124,627 / € 1,005 / £ 902)||KLM||22h25/20h10||Transfer in Amsterdam.|
|Tokyo||USD 875 (approx. ¥ 81,017 / € 654 / £ 587)||Philippine Airlines||4h30|
|Buenos Aires||USD 2,121 (approx. ¥ 196,384 / € 1,584 / £ 1,422)||Qatar Airways||29h20/30h30||Transfer in São Paulo and Doha.|
|Los Angeles||USD 947 (approx. ¥ 87,683 / € 708 / £ 635)||China Southern Airlines||19h25/22h55||Transfer in Guangzhou. There are non-stop flights available on Philippine Airlines.|
|Mexico City||USD 1,400 (approx. ¥ 129,626 / € 1,046 / £ 938)||Cathay Pacific||27h/22h05||Transfer in Los Angeles and Hong Kong. Outbound to Los Angeles is on Alaska Airlines, while inbound to Mexico City is on Aeroméxico.|
|New York||USD 1,188 (approx. ¥ 109,997 / € 887 / £ 796)||Cathay Pacific||20h35/18h40||Transfer in Hong Kong.|
|Rio de Janeiro||USD 2,253 (approx. ¥ 208,606 / € 1,683 / £ 1,510)||British Airways||33h25/38h5||Transfer in London and Hong Kong. Outbound to Manila and inbound to Hong Kong is on Cathay Pacific.|
|San Francisco||USD 957 (approx. ¥ 88,609 / € 715 / £ 642)||China Airlines||17h35/23h40||Transfer in Taipei. There are non-stop flights available on Philippine Airlines.|
|Toronto||USD 1,322 (approx. ¥ 122,404 / € 988 / £ 886)||Air Canada||20h55/18h10||Transfer in Tokyo. Outbound to Manila and inbound to Tokyo is on All Nippon Airways.|
|Vancouver||USD 1,147 (approx. ¥ 106,201 / € 857 / £ 769)||Korean Air||18h15/14h25||Transfer in Seoul. There are non-stop flights available on Philippine Airlines.|
|Washington, D.C.||USD 1,399 (approx. ¥ 129,534 / € 1,045 / £ 938)||Korean Air||22h20||Transfer in Seoul.|
|Amsterdam||USD 1,169 (approx. ¥ 108,238 / € 873 / £ 784)||Qatar Airways||19h30/22h35||Transfer in Munich and Doha. Outbound to Munich and inbound to Amsterdam is on Lufthansa. There are non-stop flights available on KLM.|
|Berlin||USD 1,393 (approx. ¥ 128,978 / € 1,041 / £ 934)||Qatar Airways||21h10/25h35||Transfer in Doha.|
|London||USD 1,124 (approx. ¥ 104,072 / € 840 / £ 754)||Qatar Airways||17h20/19h5||Transfer in Doha.|
|Madrid||USD 1,163 (approx. ¥ 107,683 / € 869 / £ 780)||Emirates||19h||Transfer in Dubai.|
|Moscow||USD 984 (approx. ¥ 91,109 / € 735 / £ 660)||Etihad Airways||22h/16h10||Transfer in Abu Dhabi. Flight departs from Domodedovo International Airport.|
|Paris||USD 1,002 (approx. ¥ 92,776 / € 749 / £ 672)||Qatar Airways||21h35/19h10||Transfer in Doha.|
|Rome||USD 1,176 (approx. ¥ 108,886 / € 879 / £ 788)||Emirates||18h50/19h25||Transfer in Dubai. There is a cheaper two-stop option on Kuwait Airways for $805, but with a longer layover.|
|Zürich||USD 1,476 (approx. ¥ 136,663 / € 1,102 / £ 989)||British Airways||19h10/21h||Transfer in London and Hong Kong. Outbound to Manila and inbound to Hong Kong is on Cathay Pacific.|
|Cairo||USD 630 (approx. ¥ 58,332 / € 471 / £ 423)||Saudi Arabian Airlines||20h15/23h||Transfer in Riyadh on the outbound, while transfer in Dammam and Jeddah on the inbound. Inbound to Cairo from Jeddah is in business class.|
|Johannesburg||USD 1,151 (approx. ¥ 106,572 / € 860 / £ 772)||Qatar Airways||19h40||Transfer in Doha.|
|Lagos||USD 1,456 (approx. ¥ 134,812 / € 1,088 / £ 976)||Ethiopian Airlines||27h/28h30||Transfer in Addis Ababa and Hong Kong. The flight between Addis Ababa and Hong Kong has a stop in Bangkok. Outbound to Manila and inbound to Hong Kong is on Philippine Airlines.|
|Nairobi||USD 1,286 (approx. ¥ 119,071 / € 961 / £ 862)||Ethiopian Airlines||20h40||Transfer in Addis Ababa and Bangkok. Outbound to Manila and inbound to Bangkok is on Thai Airways.|
Manila is also served by the Diosdado Macapagal (Clark) International Airport (DMIA), located 85 kilometers north of Manila in Angeles City, Pampanga. Several low-cost carriers, both local and foreign, currently serve Clark, flying to two domestic and seven international destinations. The airport is connected to Manila by frequent bus service.
Manila has an extensive bus network which serves all seventeen cities and municipalities which comprise Metro Manila, as well as areas in neighboring provinces. All buses are privately-operated and several bus companies may ply a single route, especially along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). There are three types of buses:
- Ordinary buses, which are not air-conditioned. Some routes in the Manila bus network are exclusively served by ordinary buses.
- Air-conditioned buses, which are air-conditioned. Most buses are of this type.
- Provincial buses, which serve areas outside of Manila. Buses may be ordinary or air-conditioned.
Unlike many cities, bus routes in Manila are not numbered. The route and points along the way however are prominently displayed at the front of the bus, which allows for bus passengers to easily determine which bus to board to a certain destination. Bus conductors also shout the destination of the bus when picking up passengers at bus stations.
Fares are distance-based, with ordinary buses being cheaper than air-conditioned buses by around 20 percent. Fares normally begin at ₱10 for air-conditioned buses and there are discounts for students and senior citizens.
Manila is served by the Strong Republic Transit System (SRTS), which is composed of four railway lines operated by three companies. Three lines are rapid transit lines, which are mostly elevated, while one is a commuter rail line operated by the Philippine National Railways (PNR), which is at grade.
|December 1, 1984||22||17.2||Roosevelt||Baclaran|
|April 5, 2003||11||13.8||Recto||Santolan|
|December 15, 1999||13||16.95||Taft Avenue||North Avenue|
|July 14, 2009
The Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT) is notable for being Southeast Asia's first rapid transit system, and along with the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), the three rapid transit lines serve as a fast way of navigating around the metropolis. The PNR's Commuter Express (Commex) service meanwhile connects Manila with communities in southern Metro Manila and the neighboring province of Laguna. Overall, the SRTS provides coverage to 12 of Metro Manila's 17 constituent cities and municipalities, with close proximity to many major sites and attractions.
Fares on the SRTS are distance-based, with the minimum fare being ₱10 for the MRT and the PNR, and ₱12 for the LRT. The LRT and MRT are reputed for being the most affordable rapid transit systems in Southeast Asia, being significantly cheaper to ride than other systems in the region. For the convenience of passengers, stored value tickets which allow for multiple rides are available for ₱100, while the Flash Pass is available for ₱250 and allows for unlimited rides and transfers on the LRT and MRT for one week.
Manila is served by thousands of taxis, all of which are privately-operated and licensed by the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB). Some of the bigger operators dispatch taxis on call, and they serve as a convenient means of going around the city, especially in areas further away from the city centers where connectivity to public transport is poor. There are two types of taxis:
City taxis charge a ₱40 flag fare for the first 500 meters and ₱3.50 for every 300 meters thereafter. Airport taxis meanwhile charge a ₱70 flag fare for the first two kilometers and ₱4 for every 250 meters thereafter. Almost all taxis in Metro Manila are air-conditioned, and since 2011, all taxis are capable of issuing receipts.
At the airport, coupon taxis are available for hire. These are special taxis which charge a distance-based flat fare to any point in a given city in Metro Manila, as well as to points within Luzon. These taxis are more expensive than ordinary metered taxis, but are convenient for large groups of people who prefer to travel together, or for those with heavy articles such as suitcases. The Manila International Airport Authority maintains a list of coupon taxi rates on its website.
Local sponsorship opportunities
Possibility of local sponsorships
- (no name needed, just "company X, 4000 USD or will provide 300 beds)
Manila is home to most Filipino Wikimedians resident in the Philippines, and the Philippine Wikimedia community at large has traditionally been centered in Manila. Wikimedians in Manila have organized several meetups, participated in free culture events over the last ten years and, starting September 2006, led efforts to establish a Wikimedia chapter in the Philippines: in April 2010, Wikimedia Philippines was established as the second Wikimedia chapter in Southeast Asia, and several Wikimedians in Manila actively participate in the activities of the chapter. Wikimedia Philippines officially meets five times a year, while community meetups are scattered throughout the rest of the year.
In the last two years, Wikimedia Philippines has organized several projects with a particular emphasis on promotion and development of Wikimedia content in the Philippines, particularly in local languages. Informal issue fora such as the Wikipedia Kapihan and the Wikimedia Tambayan Talk have reached out to like-minded organizations and government agencies, allowing for coordination on the possible future path of development for Wikimedia content in the Philippines. Contests such as the highly successful Wikipedia Takes Manila and future events based on this model will hopefully challenge traditional stereotypes on contributing to the Wikimedia projects and allow for Filipinos to recognize alternatives to article-writing on the Wikimedia projects. Finally, the WMPH annual convention allows us not only to reach out to ordinary Filipinos, but also to develop our skills in organizing major conferences, something which is important in organizing a successful Wikimania.
NOTE: Proceeding with a Manila bid for Wikimania 2013 is currently being studied by Wikimedia Philippines, and this bid has not yet been officially endorsed by the chapter.
Currency and cost of living
The official currency of the Philippines is the Philippine peso (ISO 4217: PHP, Filipino: piso), which is divided into 100 centavos (Filipino: sentimo). Prices in pesos are noted with the Philippine peso sign (₱), an uppercase P with two horizontal strokes, although a simple uppercase P is also in common use.
The Philippines has over 10,000 ATMs belonging to three main interbank networks: BancNet, Expressnet and MegaLink. Almost all ATMs in the Philippines which belong to these three networks are also connected to Cirrus and PLUS, while a growing number of ATMs also accept American Express, JCB and China UnionPay cards. While credit and debit cards are widely accepted in Manila, travelers' checks are not and only a handful of money changers, plus the American Express office in Manila and some of the larger banks, accept them.
Money changers are commonplace in Manila and are found all over the city, especially in tourist areas, and most large banks can exchange foreign currency into pesos. All legally-operating money changers are licensed by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines). Terminal 1 at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, for example, has eleven banks (four at departures, seven at arrivals) which can exchange foreign currency into Philippine pesos, and all malls in Metro Manila have at least one money changer or bank which exchanges foreign currency into pesos. As is the case with most of Asia, the U.S. dollar is the most popular foreign currency in the Philippines, although it is possible to exchange euros, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, Canadian dollars and Japanese yen with ease as well. Major Southeast Asian, East Asian and Middle Eastern currencies may also be exchanged in Manila.
|Exchange rates from the BSP (as of July 22, 2011)|
|Foreign currency||Value in PHP||Foreign currency||Value in PHP||Foreign currency||Value in PHP|
|U.S. dollar||₱42.61||Japanese yen||₱0.54||Pound sterling||₱69.49|
|Hong Kong dollar||₱5.47||Swiss franc||₱52.28||Canadian dollar||₱45.09|
|Singapore dollar||₱35.21||Australian dollar||₱46.14||Bahraini dinar||₱113.03|
|Kuwaiti dinar||₱155.24||Saudi riyal||₱11.36||Brunei dollar||₱35.07|
|Indonesian rupiah||₱0.005||Thai baht||₱1.42||Emirati dirham||₱11.60|
|Renminbi||₱6.60||South Korean won||₱0.04||Euro||₱61.36|
The cost of living in Manila, and the Philippines in general, is one of the lowest in the world: the 2009 Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living rankings places Manila in 126th place out of 134 cities, making it the eighth-cheapest city in the world to live in for expatriates. The website Living in the Philippines has an entire section dedicated to cost of living in various parts of the Philippines, including a particularly detailed article on the cost of living (as of 2009) in Manila.
- Weaknesses of the proposed location ...and how to overcome those weaknesses
- Weather: The Philippines sit astride the typhoon belt, and the country suffers an annual onslaught of dangerous storms from July through October.
- Manila rarely gets directly hit by typhoons (the last direct hit was with Typhoon Xangsane (Milenyo) in 2006), and there are days during typhoon season where there is no rain at all. Conferences have been hosted before in Manila during typhoon season, and Wikimania 2007 was also held during this time. The conference will be planned with the weather in mind: this includes hosting Wikimania in venues which are less prone to flooding, coordinating with the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) before the conference to confirm whether or not Wikimania will be affected by rainy weather, and the development of contingencies should events have to be canceled or moved because of the rain.
- Safety: Manila is frequently seen as being unsafe, with incidents where foreign nationals have been killed, such as the Manila hostage crisis, having taken place
- Manila is no less safe than most other major cities, and in particular other cities in Asia. Incidents such as the Manila hostage crisis are a rare occurrence: overall tourist arrivals were not significantly affected by the incident despite an expected drop in tourist arrivals from Hong Kong, and it has been remarked that the incident can happen anywhere in the world, not just in Manila. The travel warnings issued by major countries (the U.S., U.K., Canada, Japan, France and Australia) in fact only advise against all travel for their nationals to the southern island of Mindanao, almost 1000 kilometers south of Manila and the main island of Luzon, and merely advise their nationals to exercise caution while in Metro Manila.
- Weakness 3
- Solution 3
- Strengths of the proposed location
- Open borders. Very few if any Wikimedians would be prevented from attending an event in Manila due to visa or similar problems.
- Value for money. Prices are generally lower in Manila than in most recent venues
- Globalism. Manila is a longhaul flight away from any of the previous five venues, and is closer to many active wikimedia communities than those previous five venues.
- Strength 4
City of Manila
Notes and references
- "World's Densest Cities". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- "World: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- Tourists ready for PH; PH not ready for tourists, Philippine Daily Inquirer, December 14, 2010
- Gov’t sees 10% drop in HK tourist arrivals, Philippine Daily Inquirer, September 3, 2010