Grants:PEG/Parlour Inc/Women Wikipedia Design
What is the problem you're trying to solve?
The problem we seek to address has a number of interrelated components.
1. Limited presence of women architects
There is a very limited presence of women involved in architecture and the built environment disciplines on Wikipedia, and the entries that do exist are inconsistent in their coverage and quality. This is part of a broader situation in which women are underrepresented as both subjects and contributors on Wikipedia as a whole. Despina Stratigakos clearly outlines the context and implications of this imbalance for architecture in her essay "Unforgetting Women Architects: From the Pritzker to Wikipedia".
2. Complexities around 'notability' in the context of architectural production and history
Adding women architects is not always a clear or straightforward matter. Many significant women architects have been forgotten by history and not all 'notable' contemporary women have large media footprints to use in inline citations – adding them to Wikipedia is part of the process of writing them into history. As Tania Davidge points out in her recent essay, "Notability comes in many shapes and sizes ... We need to make space for women in architecture but we also need to remember that making space for women in architecture is not always about valuing the notable in its traditional sense but also re-evaluating the definition of notability within the profession itself."
During a recent one-day international wiki-editing program to add women architects, new contributors encountered resistance from some other Wikipedia editors, who questioned the 'notability' of some entries and quickly deleted others. Entries on subjects who did not have a large digital footprints were challenged, despite substantial citations to material available in analog formats.
This means new Wikipedia contributors need to have a detailed understanding of the 'notability' criteria, we need to strategise to ensure that important women architects can be framed in relevant ways, and ensure that entries are written in a way that lessens questions as to notability or relevance. We also need to have active and ongoing presence in discussions about notability.
3. Limited familiarity with Wikipedia on the part of those with expert subject knowledge
Lastly, many of the people who have expertise in this area are not familiar with the process and protocols of writing Wikipedia entries, and some find it an intimidating environment. Our grant will create more concerted organized efforts in educating those with the knowledge required to write effective, high-quality Wikipedia entries.
What is your solution?
We will develop an international education and advocacy program that will enable more women and men to write Wikipedia articles on women in architecture and the built environment. We will do this by developing and sharing knowledge and skills among existing professional networks, and by expanding these networks. This will include providing writing and editing workshops along with online resources. This will create a momentum that will engage a broad range of participants, who would not otherwise become involved in editing Wikipedia. It will help create an environment in which more women see a roles for themselves as Wikipedia writers, and will build support networks between new editors and established Wikipedians.
This builds upon a successful pilot program established by Architexx, WikiD: Women Wikipedia Design, which saw groups convene all over the world on International Women's Day 2015 to write women architects into Wikipedia. This was actively supported by many groups including Parlour: women, equity, architecture and n-ails. Writing workshops were held in the United States, Australia, Germany, Canada, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. 50 new entries were contributed from the US, 23 new entries from Australia and more from other countries. These entries were made by a small number of participants, most of whom where new to Wikipedia. However, it generated significant interest among a much wider group, and raised considerable interest in an ongoing program to add women in the built environment to Wikipedia. This project was run using existing very limited resources, and was conducted with entirely volunteer labour.
There is now a clear understanding among the architectural communities in these countries that there is much more work to be done, and a willingness among many women to get involved. This new phased initiative will provide focus and resources to ensure that the momentum already developed is built on effectively and that it extends to an even broader audience. It will ensure that new Wikipedia editors have the skills and resources to write high quality articles that begin to redress the gender imbalance.
For some of the press coverage this initiative received, please see: Archdaily Architect Magazine The Missing 32percent AIA New York eOCULUS Soup of media, Architecture & Design , Parlour and Parlour.
We will work with our strong existing networks and reach within the architectural community to develop a volunteer base, which we will train directly in workshops and indirectly with the open source training material in our three countries of the US, Australia and Germany. (For example, Parlour has 1,882 subscribers, 69,000 unique website visitors and 2,456 followers on twitter. Parlour and Architexx are both part of the international Equity by Design Alliance) We will also engage further with school of architecture librarians and archivists, architecture professors and practitioners who help create this knowledge base in combination with architecture students who are interested to expanding the list of notable women in the discipline.
Developing a successful pool of new, active Wikipedia contributors will depend on our building strong connections with the Wikipedia community and drawing on existing successful campaigns to increase women's participation. This will ensure that we build on existing knowledge and resources. We are very pleased that the Art + Feminism project has contacted us with an offer to share resources and advice, along with other Wikipedians.
The principal goal is to increase the number of women in design, construction and the built environment who are active as Wikipedia editors, and thereby to increase the number of articles about female architects and others in the field. We also aim to increase the number of articles on gender equity programs, initiatives and activist projects within architecture. As well as adding new articles, we seek to and to improve the overall quality of existing articles on this topic. This includes articles that have already been flagged as needing attention.
We aim to build connections between enthusiastic new editors who have excellent content knowledge, but are unfamiliar with Wikipedia processes and protocols, and experienced Wikipedians who can provide guidance in navigating this new, complicated world. This will ensure that momentum is maintained and new content successfully added.
The project will also strengthen existing international networks between groups and individuals working to address gender inequity in architecture and the built environment.
These goals relate to the following broader aims:
– Recognise female achievements in a field that continues to be male-dominated, in both Wikipedia and the real world;
– Expand the information available on professional role models;
– Create new sources of inspiration for girls and students of architecture;
– Work towards countering gender inequalities in the field;
– Facilitate a global network of people to actively pool our resources and efforts.
Note: the following project plan has not yet been revised to reflect late budget changes requested on 29/4/15 and will need to be re-assessed accordingly.
The project is an international collaboration between a number of groups already actively working for gender equity in architecture – from Germany, the United States and Australia. We will work together to develop shared resources, while also running targeted workshops within our own regions. The resources developed will also be made available to other groups in other places who also wish to develop their own allied programs.
Parlour (Australia), Architexx (New York) and n-ails (Berlin) already have high profiles, strong communication networks and a firmly established online presence. Parlour and Architexx have experience working together in the past, and we are developing strong working relationships between the three groups.
We will to engage with and seek support from Wikipedians with relevant experience in relation to each of the following activities. This will include 'in person' contact with representatives of related initiatives in our home cities (for example, the Berlin-based group that recently participated in Art + Feminism's Womens Day Edit-a-Thon https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Meetup/Berlin/ArtAndFeminism_2015) and virtual contacts with experts and groups elsewhere. We will create our article lists on Meta in order for the broader Wikimedia community to have easy access.
Develop resources in English and German to guide new contributors through the process of writing Wikipedia entries. This will make the first step more widely accessible. These resources will build on the guide provided by Architexx as part of wikiD. They will be available online and as part of the Wikipedia writing workshops. They will draw on successful resources developed by similar initiatives in other disciplines including the GLAM resources, computing and Art + Feminism which we will refine to be relevant to issues particular to architecture. By tailoring these to our particular community and knowledge base we will increase engagement and uptake.
Guide content will include:
– an introductory guide to creating a Wikipedia entry, including a basic guide to using the Wikipedia interface (using existing guides)
– advice on appropriate writing style and content (as distinct from established styles of architectural writing)
– advice on the selection of appropriate subjects (particularly in relation to 'notability' and gender in architecture)
– advice on collecting and collating appropriate reference and source material, include tips on where to look for material for inexperienced researchers
– advice on ensuring that entries meet the Wikipedia notability criteria (in relation to the particulars of architectural production, gender and the way the historical record is constructed and where women have not been recognized on par with their male peers)
– trouble-shooting advice and tactics on responding to flags from other Wikipedia editors
– a how-to guide to running a Wiki-writing event for architecture and built environment communities
The Guide content will build on existing resources, including those developed by the Art + Feminism project. Key resources will be edited and adapted to ensure relevance to architectural and built environment communities, and to the particular countries and cultural contexts.
This is an important and significant contribution. There are many great resources extant, but new Wikipedia editors may find these overwhelming, and they are not specific to our knowledge community. We will sift, review and revise these for our primary audience. As a result, we will guide architecture content producers through these extant resources in meaningful and relevant ways and compile additional architecture-specific material. This is particularly important in engaging new editors and keeping them active. (Please see Parlour's downloadable Guides to Equitable Practice as an example of a similar, albeit larger, project in a different content area).
We will identify gaps in existing graphic-format resources for digital and print dissemination and develop key additions, utilising and expanding our organisations' existing web presence (including the Parlour website). This will create pathways for participants new to Wikipedia, linking back to Wiki materials, and will draw on existing graphic material, for example the Systemic Bias Workshop Kit . We note that the architectural community is highly visual, and high quality graphic material is an important part of communicating with this group.
Lists of possible subjects and reference materials
Expand lists of potential subjects and collect existing research that can be used in writing entries on these subjects. This will build on the spreadsheets developed in Australia and Germany as part of wikiD.
Key texts (for organisers and editors) will be translated into German, and edited for relevance to German Wikipedia.
These resources will be made available to other groups wishing to extend the campaign in their own region.
Run a six-month campaign in all three countries encouraging women and men to write articles about women architects and other design and construction professionals. This will access the following:
– professional organisations and associations in New York City, Berlin and Melbourne
– media and press, including industry channels, in New York City, Berlin and Melbourne
This will include developing promotional material to spread the message. The team already has excellent media contacts and is very experienced at communicating with the architecture and built environment professions. We also have excellent networks within architectural academia.
We will hold a series of Wiki-Introduction-Workshops for professionals and students in the field in New York City, Berlin and Melbourne. These will be based on the guides and resources outlined above, and will provide a facilitated, collaborative environment in which participants will learn how to develop, write and edit high-quality Wikipedia entries. These workshops will be complemented by a series of Wiki-Writing-Parties where existing research is shared and written into Wikipedia.
Each workshop will include at least one facilitator who can provide immediate advice on navigating the Wikipedia system. Experienced Wikipedians will participate in all sessions. (As discussed below, we are pleased to note that we have already began making contact with interested active Wikipedians and will reach out to Wikimedia chapters.)
Once we have effective processes in place, we will support other groups who wish to run workshops in their own region with publicly available resources and advice. Project management will include towards communications with various groups in other countries who have already expressed interest (for example, in Portugal, Switzerland, Ireland, Canada, Switzerland, New Zealand). This will provide some remote support and quality control, and avoid abortive work from inexperienced organisers (recognising that this has been a concern for past similar initiatives).
We will use our online communities and communication networks to keep the new active editors engaged, and to ensure that Wikipedia entries continue to be written. This will include publishing a report every 3 months to detail recent activity and regular alerts to the growing team of Wikipedia editors to new writing workshops, both real and virtual. This will be done though existing online platforms of Parlour, Architexx and n-ails. This will include tips and advice from the Wikipedia community.
The project will proceed through the following steps. Note that although there are presented sequentially below, some of them will occur concurrently.
Step 1: Engage with Wikipedia community
Reach out to the Wikipedia community in each country to seek input, advice and participation in training sessions and workshops. Seek advice from the Wikimedia Foundation about the best way to contact Wikipedians in each location. Establish a WikiProject page.
Identify a number of Wikipedians interested in the project for each location.
Progress to date: We have made contact with Wikipedians in the US, Australia, UK and Germany who have offered assistance. In addition 12 people have offered to volunteer so far.
Timeframe: mid-May 2015 – ongoing
Step 2: Feedback on wikiD: Women. WIkipedia. Design
Gather feedback from those who participated in the wikiD events in Australia, the US and Berlin as to particular issues identified, problems faced and resources needed.
Progress to date: Informal feedback has identified challenges around ‘notability’, oral history citations and other non-traditional references. This is a particular issue for those who have had significant careers and impact, but do not have a large digital or archival presence.
Timeframe: mid-end May 2015
Step 3: Establish small working groups in each city
Identify a working group in each city, including one experienced Wikipedian. This will draw on the active, motivated participants brought together in each city as a result of wikiD.
Progress to date: People active in wikiD have already offered to participate in response to the grant proposal.
Timeframe: mid-end May 2015
Step 4: Engage with content experts in the field
Establish contacts with historians, archivists, critics and writers with specialist content expertise, to seek support and / or form advisory groups for the project.
Identify subject areas and references required.
Progress to date: Contact already established with key archives, historians and critics. Substantial lists of potential subjects have been crowd-sourced. In Australia a large collection of essays, articles and other reference material is already available via Parlour.
Timeframe: June 2015 – ongoing
Step 5: Review existing guidelines
Review existing guidelines from Wikipedia, Art+Feminism, GLAM and elsewhere. Identify if and how these should be modified to be relevant to members of the architecture and built environment communities. This will be done in light of the feedback from wikiD and with advice and input from established Wikipedians.
Issues relating to women architects are similar, but not the same as women artists. Architecture is made in quite different contexts, and in teams. This means that ‘notability’ is framed differently.
Note: Our experience of writing and publishing other guides addressed to the architectural community is that, even when material already exists, this is not necessarily found or accessed. Tailoring content to the particular disciplinary and professional context, and promoting it as such, significantly increases uptake and engagement.
Progress to date: Architexx has compiled Instructions for Creating a Wikipedia Article, and a member of the Parlour community has created first-time users guide. Art + Feminism has offered us access to their resources.
Timeframe: June 2015
Step 6 Develop guidelines as appropriate for architectural content
Refine and edit existing Guides as required. (Guide content is outlined under the Resources section.) Translate into German as required.
Publish Guidelines on Parlour, Architexx and n-ails.
Compile lists of links to useful resources elsewhere, with advice on how to navigate if required.
Publicise Guides and alert other interested groups.
Timeframe: Mid-June – mid-July 2015
Relevant experience: The Parlour team is highly experienced at communicating with architectural audiences and writing accessible, engaging guides.
Step 7: Establish a program of training and writing workshops
We plan to run 3 events in each location, over a six-month period, using existing and revised resources. Each will include member of the working groups and at least one experienced Wikipedian (depending on number of attendees.)
The first session will be a training event for new editors. The remaining sessions will be combined training/writing events with a training stream for new editors and a writing stream for more experienced editors.
Advice on running workshops will be sought from Art + Feminism and other experienced Wikipedians. Feedback will be sought after each workshop and incorporated into future events.
Where possible venues will be provided in-kind by institutions, universities and architectural practices, using existing networks.
Timeframe: July/August – October 2015
Relevant experience: All applicants have extensive experience in setting up and running successful events.
Step 8: Set up and maintain ongoing support structures
Compile regular reports on activity, publish regular updates on Parlour, Architexx and n-ails, including alerting editors about entries that need revision and further work, and contested entries.
Send out press release in a timely manner.
Timeframe: June 2015 – ongoing
Relevant experience: Applicants have extensive experience in organising and communicating effectively with the architectural profession and media.
1. Media campaign management $1,250 USD
(for New York, Melbourne and Berlin combined)
50 hours total @ $US 25 / hour =2.5 hours/week (x20 weeks)
2. Guidelines translation - $1,000 USD
English-German translation of industry-specific guidelines, including “how-to-notability”
- $1000 translation English-German by contracted translator
3. Event collateral, including printing and misc. event supplies - $200 USD for New York, Melbourne and Berlin combined
- Sign-up sheets and Guidance resources - $10 per city per event (total $90)
- Misc. event supplies - $110
4. Campaign profile and content on existing online platforms – creation and maintenance - $1,800 USD
Nom. rate $US 40/hour (+ reduced rate for maintenance)
Expansion of Parlour web platform, including:
- Creation/expansion – 22.5 hours @ $40/hour
- Maintenance - 1.5 hours / week over 6 months = 36 hours @ $25/hour
5. Venue costs - TBA
- Venue hire
- Hire of laptops
We expect to cover many venue costs through in kind support from host institutions, organisations and practices. We already have strong relationships with many organisations. The extent of in-kind support is difficult to estimate at this stage, but we expect to seek approval for up to $6000 at a later stage.
6. Project management $9,900 USD
(role includes: volunteer coordination, administration, event coordination, approaching networks, communication with new active editors, including regular reports and updates, reviewing, revising and producing guideline content. Effectively this position sustains the framework to empower and train volunteers and enable their participation)
Nom. average rate $US 25/hour. We note that this is well below industry standards and relies on considerable in kind labour from the project initiators and working group members.
400 total combined hours, this includes:
- Organising time: Estimated total of 396 hours over 6 months = combined 16.5 hrs/week (5.5 hours per city x24 weeks)= $9,900
- Event management/attendance time provided in kind.
This work to be divided among the four project initiators and working group members.
Total Budget: $14,150 USD
Engagement so far
We have already started an active program of community engagement through the recent wikiD initiative. This has led to strong interest and momentum, which the new initiative will build on. This includes the following:
– Many Wiki-Writing-Parties were held on International Women's Day 2015 across the globe including the US,Australia, Canada, Germany , Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. The initial call and events themselves was covered in a range of media – listed below – and the online response was documented through Storify.
– We have created open access lists of female architects in Germany and Australia through Google Drive. Multiple people have contributed to these lists and these have heightened awareness of the need to substantially increase the coverage of women architects on Wikipedia. These lists were used during the wikiD initiative. The Australian list is now also being used by students at RMIT University (Melbourne) as part of their course-work.
– We have opened discussions with existing organisational resources such as the International Archive of Women in Architecture http://spec.lib.vt.edu/IAWA/, the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation's Dynamic Nation Archive http://www.bwaf.org/dna/ , the Architecture Museum at the University of South Australia and the RMIT Design Archives. We will also draw on the following existing publications and bodies of knowledge in Australia – Women with a Plan at the Australian Women's History Forum, The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth Century Australia, The Dictionary of Sydney, the Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture, edited by Philip Goad and Julie Willis, and Women Architects in Australia, 1900–1950 by Julie Willis & Bronwyn Hanna (RAIA, 2001). In Germany, we will draw on the research of Kerstin Dörhöfer, including her book Pionierinnen in der Architektur, Eine Baugeschichte der Moderne and other material.
– In Australia we have collected a substantial amount of research material and articles, which can be downloaded via Parlour. These have been made available by leading scholars in the field.
– In Australia, wikiD was supported and promoted by Parlour, with the Wiki-Writing parties being self-organised by members of the architectural community – this support came from a very broad spectrum of the profession. Parties were organised at short notice by Sibling, a young, emerging architectural practice, and New South Wales Architects Registration Board, the regulation board of the largest state in Australia. This demonstrates that there is already community buy-in to the project.
– Media coverage of events so far includes: Architecture & Design, s-architecture, Australian Design Review, a radio interview in Melbourne (Australia); ArchDaily, Architect magazine, The Missing 32percent AIA New York eOCULUS Soup of media(US). An overview update has also been published on Parlour.
– This grant application has also attracted media coverage on ArchitectureAU
– We have begun making contact with experienced Wikipedians and Wikimedia Communities.
Proposed new engagement
Professional and disciplinary communities. We have excellent networks within our disciplinary and professional contexts. This is a significant advantage in terms of access to high quality content and expert knowledge and bringing new, committed contributors to Wikipedia. Further community engagement will use these existing substantial networks and our highly-regarded online platforms (the Parlour and Architexx websites and social media networks), along with media contacts and networks, to do the following:
– Reach out to existing industry communities, where members are typically not familiar with writing and editing Wikipedia articles.
– Establish a strong media campaign to extend our reach beyond these existing networks, and to increase the profile of the initiative.
– Build community networks and participation through the workshops.
Wikipedia community. Our connections with Wikipedians and the Wikipedia community are still in development. We recognise the importance of building connections and networks within the Wikipedia community. This will be vital in terms of navigating the complexities of Wikipedia and ensuring that we learn from existing knowledge and initiatives.
We have been very pleased that the process of putting this grant application together has already led to connections with Wikipedians in the US, Berlin and Australia, along with Ireland. We look forward to working with advice from the Wikimedia Foundation about accessing, developing and strengthening such contacts and networks.
This will include learning from successful campaigns such as Art + Feminism.
Feedback and evaluation
This will include the following:
– Feedback at the end of each introduction and writing workshop.
– Participants will be surveyed at the campaign completion to evaluate success of engagement and likelihood of continued involvement.
– Wikipedia Global Metrics will be used to assess activity and engagement.
Sustainability and retention
The project will be run through established organisations, which will ensure the long-term viability of this project. Campaign material, resources and the introductory guide will be made available through these online platforms in each country.
The ultimate goal of the project is to widen the pool of capable Wikipedia contributors to the field of notable women in architecture, design and construction.
We intend that all workshop participants will be equipped to continue to write independently on Wikipedia in the future and encourage others to do so, sustaining the project indefinitely.
We understand that retention can be an issue after the first flush of enthusiasm. We will work to keep new editors active by:
– creating a report every three months, detailing recent activity, work required and current and future plans
– providing regular opportunities to catch up and/or support ongoing writing events
– establishing and maintaining a WikiProject page
– providing regular updates and alerts via our existing online platforms (Parlour, Architexx and n-ails websites)
See also "Ongoing Support" outlined in the Activities section above.
Measures of success
– At least 300 participants in our workshops over the six-month period
– At least 75 new active Wikipedia editors
– New entries on 200–250 women in architecture, design and the built environment, as well as gender equity programs, initiatives and activist projects within architecture on Wikipedia
– Identify and edit 25–50 existing entries on women architects in Australia, Germany and the United States needing improvement
– Under 5 deletions of new in-workshop articles per workshop (due to matters within our control, for example questions regarding notability or relevance) by other Wikipedia editors
These measures relate to the Wikipedia Strategic Priorities of increasing participation and improving quality and are supported via the Wikipedia Global Metrics.
Need target-setting tips? Note: in addition to your project-specific measures of success, you will also be asked to report on some Global Metrics at the end of your final report. Please keep this in mind as you plan, and we'll support you as you begin your project.
n-ails Netzwerk - architektinnen, innenarchitektinnen, landschaftsarchitektinnen und stadtplanerinnen: n-ails is a Berlin-based network of architects, interior designers , landscape architects and town planners established in 2004. The group has over 10 years experience acting as a platform for interdisciplinary exchange and professional collaboration among women in the built environment industry. n-ails has connections to similar female networks in other German-speaking cities, including Hamburg and Zurich.
Parlour: women, equity, architecture, Australia. Parlour is a 'space to speak", which brings together research, informed opinion and resources; generates debate and discussion; and expands the spaces for women in Australian architecture. Parlour is an Incorporated Association in Australia, which began as an initiative of an Australia-Research-Council-funded project Equity and Diversity in the Australian Architectural Profession: Women, work, leadership. Parlour has 1,882 subscribers in Australia and internationally. The Parlour website has had over 69,000 unique visitors over the past three years. 52% of visitors are based in Australia, with the others coming from a broad range of international locations – from 4,270 cities in 179 countries.The Parlour team also brings excellent document editing and connections with an outstanding graphic designer.
ArchiteXX, New York, New York is an independent, unaffiliated organization for women in architecture that seeks to transform the profession of architecture by bridging the academy and practice that informally began in 2012 and have recently become an incorporated not for profit. Through our diverse programming and mentoring efforts, we are working with a wide range of students, recent graduates, academics, and practitioners to raise the awareness and exposure of women in our built environment and diversify our ranks.
Justine Clark is an architectural editor, researcher, writer and critic. She is the co-founder and editor of Parlour: women, equity, architecture. She co-convened the symposium Transform: Altering the Future of Architecture and co-wrote and edited the Parlour Guides to Equitable Practice. Justine has significant experience initiating and organising events and is regularly involved in public discussions on architecture, as well as participating in award and competition juries. Justine is a former editor of Architecture Australia, the journal of record for Australian architecture (2003–2011), and co-author, with Paul Walker, of Looking for the Local: Architecture and the New Zealand Modern (VUP 2000) and the accompanying exhibition. Justine is a Senior Fellow at the University of Melbourne, a member of the Victorian Design Review Panel. She has received the Bates Smart Award for Architecture in the Media three times and is the inaugural winner of the Munro Diversity Award (with Gill Matthewson).
Lori Brown is an architect, academic, and co-founder of ArchiteXX. She curated, organized and participated in Feminist Practices, an international group of women designers and architects whose work engages feminist methodologies which was published as an edited book, Feminist Practices: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Women in Architecture by Ashgate in December 2011. Her second book Contested Spaces: Abortion Clinics, Women's Shelters and Hospitalsinvestigates how legislation affects politicized and securitized spaces was published in June 2013 by Ashgate. She is beginning to co-edit the first volume of A Global Dictionary of Women in Architecture with Dr. Karen Burns for Ashgate. She has been awarded the American Institute of Architects Diversity Best Practice Honorable Mention and a commendation for the Milka Bliznakov Prize for the Feminist Practices exhibition. She is an associate professor at Syracuse University School of Architecture and a licensed architect in New York state.
Eleanor Chapman is an architect, writer and former president of Architects for Peace. She has several years experience organising public talks and forums, coordinating volunteers and advocating for socio-spatial justice. Eleanor was part of the PechaKucha Melbourne event coordination team in 2010-2012. Originally from Melbourne, Australia, she is currently based in Berlin and recently initiated an International Women's Day Wiki Writing Party in conjunction with n-ails.
Wisible is a practising architect, project manager and feminist based in Berlin. She is a member of n-ails and has a strong connection to the german speaking scene of women designers and architects.
- Volunteer I organised a Wiki Party in Sydney Australia on International Women's Day to add women architects to Wikipedia. There is clearly much more work to be done, and I would be happy to be part of this effort. LinkPlace (talk) 04:59, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer To increase women's presence in the built environment, which traditionally a male dominated field of practice. 18.104.22.168 08:23, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer Timothy Moore: I can offer my skills in architectural publishing, practice and academia to assist in the development of wikipedia entries. I can host, facilitate or coordinate workshops at my architecture office or at university when called upon by Parlour: women, equity, architecture Alain2delon (talk)
- Volunteer I am a university teacher and have basic knowledge of wikipedia editing and entry creation. I assisted at the initial International Women's Day Wikiparty in Melbourne and would be willing to assist in training or technical support on the ground in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia or online. Alysiab (talk) 21:01, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer - Alain2delon (talk) 00:41, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer I am more than happy to contribute as a volunteer to this excellent project and provide my time in many ways - developing networks, creating online writing, assisting editing, researching information. Charityedwards (talk) 21:44, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Advisor Help on deciding and finding the women to feature in the articles Mph-coco (talk) 12:36, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer I would be interested in helping in any way that I can. Ncqg (talk) 14:14, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer I am passionate about architecture. I have many creative skills including writing, photography, graphic design and facilitating. I would love to be part of this. I would love to write about women's architecture and the many voices involved, I would love to photograph any events, people involved and architecture by women and the passion it creates within the community. And I would love to help host any associated events, market it and be actively part of spreading the word. MagdalenaJS (talk) 01:39, 1 April 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer Elsa Lam: There is much work to be done on this issue in Canada. I can help host, facilitate or coordinate workshops on this topic in Toronto and/or Canada. --Elsalam01 (talk) 19:28, 1 April 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer I'm one of Wikimedia UK's trainers, have run or helped run quite a few outreach events and am an admin on EN Wikipedia. Happy to support events in person if they are in or near London; Also can give remote support to events further afield. WereSpielChequers (talk) 22:55, 10 April 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer I'm a member of Wikimedia Community Ireland and would love to help organise and facilitate events on this subject on either EN or GA Wikipedia. We have some trainers in our group, so we can provide support. Smirkybec (talk) 13:59, 11 April 2015 (UTC)
- Volunteer By contributing to the visibility of female engineers in construction. Earlyspatz (talk) 11:14, 3 May 2015 (UTC)
Please paste links below to where relevant communities have been notified of your proposal, and to any other relevant community discussions. Need notification tips?
Email newsletter to 1,270 Parlour subscribers
Twitter alerts via @_Parlour to 2,453 followers ), @JustineClark to 3,681 followers and @helloarchitexx to 362 followers. These were all retweeted numerous times.
National Committee for Gender Equity, Australian Institute of Architects
Do you think this project should be selected for an Individual Engagement Grant? Please add your name and rationale for endorsing this project in the list below. (Other constructive feedback is welcome on the talk page of this
- Ulrike Eichhorn: We need to support role models to the younger generation and to strengthen gender equality for women in architecture to further continue and demand. In addition to equal pay, we need including the obvious mention of all women in every publication. Since the beginning of the 19th century, since the admission of women to the study, there were many women who worked very successful as architects. Unfortunately, these ingenious women were completely out of discrimination in the Third Reich into oblivion, giving the impression that there were no active women engaged in architecture at the beginning and in the middle of the 20th century. That's not true. I think it is important to represent the historical aspect and expand the biographies of woman in our profession, so that these women with their engagement and life get a picture in the history of architecture.
- Elke Duda: many times architects were looking for female architects but apologize couldn´t find them or didn´t know where to look at. We need an archiv but even a list of contemporary female architects. architects present themselves with buildings, thus have to be published, but who decided what is beeing published. Therefore it needs an equivalent like a list of works beeing added to a list of publishing.
- Quotation : The 17th Gyalwang Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje : It is time we truly recognize that the era of the hunter is past. This should be a more “feminine” era – an era when women make greater contributions to society. If we continue to devalue what women have to offer, we will continue harming women and continue overlooking and devaluing these virtues that are considered “feminine.” And these are precisely the virtues that the world needs more now. The 17th Karmapa [from the book "The Heart Is Noble: Changing the World from the Inside Out]
- Inka Drohn : Whilst for over 20 years more then 50% percent of the architecture students in germany today are female and the majority of excellent university degrees are earned by female architecture students, still female architects are completely underrepresented as freelance architects and especially underrepresented among those architects who are publicly known. Partly this maybe due to the fact that women tend to promote themselves less. Despite the fact that female architects continue to contribute important work in the field of planning and design, there still exists a widespread prejudice questioning womens capacities to do so. Unluckily this also results in many female freelance architects struggling harder to find a good standing in the market and often very poor earnings in relation to their hard work. I support the iniative "more female architects on wikipedia" as it will increase the awareness of the great achievements and contributions of female architects to our built environment and thus help to close the existing gendergap of working conditions for female and male architects.
- Roswitha Then Bergh : Ich unterstütze die Initiative. Architektinnen sollten ihre Arbeiten präsentieren können.
- Tania Davidge: In a profession that preferences the crediting of the individual (st)architect, many talented women are 'hidden' within this mythology. It is important to not only acknowledge these women's significant contribution in places such as Wikipedia but also to value the reality that architecture is a complex profession that takes teams of talented people to create. Acknowledging women's broader roles within the profession shifts architecture's emphasis on individual notability to an understanding that to create truly notable works it takes many notable people and that notability comes in many shapes and sizes.
- Samantha Donnelly: As a teacher in architecture and interior spatial design for the last 20 years I have been constantly working towards strengthening women's ability to deal with gender based issues which arise in the the workplace. This begins even in the university studio setting where women need to talk louder, with more confidence, and have to argue harder to have their ideas heard. I need not mention the underrepresentation of women designers and architects in many course outlines which I constantly try to address by introducing the female versions of the male heroes. To have a resource such as this proposed on wikipedia will help me as a teacher encourage my students, of both genders, to have better access to balanced information. Samantha donnelly (talk) 02:43, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Great initiative 22.214.171.124 04:54, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- I was shocked when, a month ago, I discovered there were only 10 Australian women architects in Wikipedia. Women have made a huge contribution to the architecture profession and the built environment for many decades. Our most iconic women architects, who have been awarded scores of national and international prizes, were not even mentioned! Many of men architects who are on Wikipedia either work in partnership, or are married to, women who don't rate a mention. This is clearly biased and needs to change. Within two weeks we were able to add another 15 women architects to Wikipedia. There is clearly much more work to be done. LinkPlace (talk) 04:58, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Timothy Moore: The wikipedia community parallels the architectural community where less than thirty percent of its registered users/registered architects are women. This initiative has two important benefits: it can introduce a more diverse range of contributors to wikipedia's community while addressing the under-representation of the role of women in the built environment. Core to this proposal is the focus on female architects. However, there is an imperative to expand this research to women who have been influential on the built environment, such as advocates, activists, builders, property developers and planners. This is particularly resonate in Australia, for example, when looking at indigenous participation. There are not many registered female indigenous architects, but there are many significant indigenous women that have been involved in the creation of the built environment. Why is this grant application important? Not only is this a matter of fact, social justice and equity, but it also has key economic benefits. It can increase the participation of women in architecture, rather than losing the investment of these graduates to other industries. The increased participation of women in architecture may also find new ways forward for the industry we are yet to imagine. Alain2delon (talk)
- Reaching out to the larger public is essential to creating interest and advocacy for the architecture profession in general. This project is a widespread, relatively inexpensive, and well organized way to show the public how women have influenced the design profession to a much greater extent than is currently generally understood. Increasing the presence of women architects on Wikipedia will not only help the public understand the influence that women have had in the architecture profession, but will extend the exposure that the public has to the importance and influence of architects and designers on their world in general. 126.96.36.199 14:03, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- I was unaware of many women who have made significant contributions to the field of construction until recently, as these significant women are not well represented on wikipedia. Hc218 (talk) 17:03, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- To invest in research on womens history Support wikiD (talk) 18:43, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- This is an important step to gaining more parity between women and men in the field. Jasper114c (talk) 19:19, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Alysia Bennett: Many of the important contributions made in our field, particularly those made by women before 2000, are recorded only in print media. Without the creation of wikipedia pages, for notable individuals, influential organisations and significant buildings, these important histories of the profession will not be accessible for current and future generations. But what is most important about this project is that it is helping the advocacy of the profession by arming architects and designers with the skills to help build a picture of the history of the built environment in a format that is accessible to all. As the best way to learn something is through undertaking a particular task, training our discipline to create new pages for female architects has the potential to have even greater secondary benefits, as they will have the ability to create and edit other content and to train their staff, family and peers how to use the site, particularly those individuals with great knowledge to record yet little access to online training. Alysiab (talk) 20:54, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- An den deutschen Hochschulen studieren im Durchschnitt mehr Frauen als Männer Architektur. Nach der letzten Studie der Bundesarchitektenkammer von 2014 sind unter den Büroinhabern von Architekturbüros nur 20% weiblich. Aus anderen Studien ist bekannt, dass Frauen in Planungsberufen immer noch weniger verdienen als Männer. Ich unterstütze den Antrag, denn mehr Präsenz von erfolgreichen Architektinnen und anderen Planerinnen in Wikipedia hätte eine Vorbildfunktion gerade auch für Berufsanfängerinnen. Gabriele Fink (talk) 21:36, 29 March 2015 (UTC)
- Tim Horton: As the regulator of the largest architectural state cohort in Australia, we support any move that promotes or reflects an authentic diversity in the sector to better respond to the disparate needs of consumers. In particular, this includes boosting the presence and profile of women who have been, and are currently, an active part of the profession.
- Warwick Mihaly: This is an important and exciting initiative to combine new media with the ongoing push for equal gender representation in the built environment. Parlour's work to date has been critical in shaping this discourse within the Australian architectural professional, and as an Australian architect I am proud this initiative is continuing onto a world stage.
- Having a greater body of information available on the important contributions women have made to architecture is invaluable to students and practitioners alike. My own exposure to women in architecture throughout my study, 20 plus years ago, consisted of a chance discovery of a book on Julia Morgan, and reference to a handful of husband and wife teams. What better place to start recognising the much broader contributions women make in this field than on wikipedia, giving students access to many more examples of women in the profession and giving practitioners the recognition they deserve.
- Naomi Stead: women are under-represented in Australian architecture by every measure of participation. We know that the picture is similar in most Anglophone countries. While numbers of students and graduates draw closer to parity, women tend to leave the profession - partly as a result of untenable working conditions, and partly because their contributions are undervalued. The fact that women are also invisible and/or excluded from resources like wikipedia is part of the problem. The proposed project would be a significant step towards a more accurate and generous representation of women's major contributions to architecture and the built environment, in Australia and internationally. This is vitally important especially for education - if female students can't see great women role models then they can't aspire to be them; if male students can't see the major contributions of women in the built environment then their perception of the industry are skewed. The proposed project would build upon strong existing networks, and use effective methods. The proposed project is well conceived and achievable. I strongly support its principles and methods, and argue that it should be funded.
- Siobhan Hennessy: I strongly support this initiative, I think it is incredibly important that women’s contributions and achievements in architecture and the built environment be acknowledged and shared – "scientia potentia est"
- I think this is a valid proposal, to better reflect the contribution of notable women to world architecture. Butterpaper (talk) 02:18, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Grace Mortlock: I believe strongly in this proposal. Women across the world in architecture are under represented. Moving towards parity in the profession is a goal we should be aiming for; by starting to represent women's contribution to the built environment on Wikipedia we can begin to achieve this. Education and awareness is an important tool we should all support.
- As a feminist architectural historian I am concerned about generating a deep and rich diversity to the professional history. These colleagues are serious, scholarly and at the forefront of the discipline, with international expertise. I hope that their important contribution will be supported. 188.8.131.52 08:05, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Greater representation of women architects, urban designers, landscape architects, etc. on Wikipedia is overdue. This is very important now when students increasingly go to Wikipedia as a go to source. I am willing to get involved in the effort, but need guidance and support to add effective edits that won't be questioned. NYurbandesigner (talk) 13:55, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- As an educator in the field of architecture I feel it is particularly important for my students to be able to quickly find resources on female architects. Wikipedia is usually their first stop for information, and the relative absence of female architects sends a discouraging and misleading message to young men and women who aspire to be architects. 184.108.40.206 14:00, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- I am one of the co-facilitators of FemTechNet and an instructor in the School of Architecture at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. I support this proposal! Architectural design demands multiple approaches to strengthen the options for quality built environments. We build--literally and figuratively--on contributions from the past. Creating and sharing knowledge on Wikipedia about female-identified designers across the globe is vital to students and scholars who aim to expand the field. Sharon Irish Leeirish (talk) 16:12, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Rosa Sheng, AIA, LEED AP BD+C: I think that part of the Equity equation goes beyond the workplace and into the history books/internet as far as accurately representing women's achievements as it particularly relates to architects and architectural designers. The recent 2nd International Congress of Architecture and Gender featured presentations around the world that came to the same conclusion. The massive under-representation of women architects previously in history books and now on Wikipedia and the internet in general is a system cultural issue that must change in order for Equity to be a possible construct in the future. We must document not only those who have passed, but also the current work of living women architects whose achievements will be forgotten yet again if we don't seek to educate, train, and dedicate time to getting the oral histories transformed to written histories. http://themissing32percent.com/blog/2015/3/21/inspirations-matrices-2ga-lisbon
- There is a dearth of women architects, especially of an earlier generation, on Wikipedia and this effort will do a lot to remedy this situation. Mary McLeod 220.127.116.11 19:45, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- Anne Brandl, netzwerk frau und sia: In 2014 only 12.7% of the members of the swiss society of engineers and architects were women. The under-representation of women in statistics is only the visible (and measurable) endpoint of a development starting in the heads. Therefore we need more knowledge about the history of women in architecture, town planning and urban design, but also about the current work of female architects as well. The proposal contributes to a better awareness of the variety of outstanding female architects.
- I think this is an important initiative for the future of architecture and our cities and civic life. Mary kate maclean (talk) 21:01, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- As a practising architect and lecturer of interior architecture history and theory, I believe it is critical to support the ‘uncovering’ of female architects and other spatial practitioners who have been either systemically or unconsciously ‘forgotten’ by various forms of media. Diverse representation of women in professional arenas still sadly tends towards the marginal in 2015, although many bottom-up and volunteer initiatives like the proposed ‘More Female Architects on Wikipedia’ are striving to redress this imbalance. Despina Stratigakos notes that the erasure of women is embedded in the dominant model used for producing architectural history – the (oftentimes ‘vanity project’) monograph. The great strength of Wikipedia is that it offers a collective, low-cost and transparent alternative to this structure, and that the process of networked online editing provides an accessible platform for many individuals hitherto excluded from the world of publishing. I was a participant in the ‘WikiD: Women Wikipedia Design’ efforts to include more female architects in Wikipedia as part of International Women's Day 2015, and went from zero-to-basic editing skills with the help of a few knowledgeable volunteers. The possibilities this simple move has opened up to me are manifold, and I have been further encouraged with this new knowledge to work an introduction to Wikipedia editing into my own curriculum development for university students – thus spreading the network even wider. I thoroughly endorse this project which both offers opportunity for many other men and women across the globe to gain important new media skills in a supportive environment, and generates a great addition of information regarding the presence of women in architecture to open source and democratic environments like Wikipedia. Charityedwards (talk) 21:39, 30 March 2015 (UTC)
- As a member of the Australian Institute of Architects National Gender Equity Committee I give my unreserved personal endorsement of this very important initiative. There is undoubtedly a trend towards keeping our historical records in online formats rather than hard copy publications, Therefore it is vital that this historical record is accurate and does not gloss over the significant contribution of so many architects who are women. It is well known and scientifically proven that unconscious bias exists against women in many fields including architecture. It would also seem based on the low number of women architects currently documented on wikipedia that this bias extends to this website as well. This program is a chance to actively correct this bias and improve the accuracy and therefore value of Wikipedia as a resource.
- It is my hope that this project will critique other biases such as race, geography and age by including diverse women architects.
Shelley Penn: It is hard to see how this well-considered, articulate and compelling proposal could not be supported. I believe it is necessary, relevant and critical, and offer my personal endorsement herewith.
- Unconscious bias and casual sexism are the two biggest challenges women face in the architectural community and in the wider construction industry. No matter the part women actually play in shaping place and community, the enduring perception is that the development of the built environment is men's work. DMHowell (talk) 03:58, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Katharina Birkenmeier, Berlin: As a female architect working in building site surveillance and as being one of too few female architects in bridge design, I encounter daily prejudices and astonishment that a woman can work - successfully - in this field... and I am sure that a higher representation of women in Wikimedia / Wikipedia will encourage more women to do so.
- This is a really timely and long overdue project. We need to make a joint effort to re-inscribe women into history and into society. It is unacceptable that the status quo and the glass ceiling continue to exist, because of value attributions (such as 'notability' or 'relevance') that only reinforce male domination. I strongly support this initiative. Hilde.heynen (talk) 07:51, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Weibliche Architekten haben viel bewegt in den letzten Jahren. Und es gibt das Potential ganz anderer Impulse für unsere gebaute Umwelt.
- This is tremendously beneficial proposal to shift the experience of women in architecture. this is an issue worldwide that we must develop better tools for addressing. Together we can achieve a greater success. I support it wholeheartedly and encourage you to do the same.
Julia Donoho, AIA, Esq. 2013-15 National Board and Strategic Council, American Institute of Architects 18.104.22.168 08:40, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Belinda Allwood: Over the past twenty five years I have seen the valuable contribution that talented women have made to the field of architecture. It is time to recognise their achievements. The health, vibrancy and sustainability of the architecture profession depends on recognising and supporting diversity. This project proposal has been put together by people widely recognised and highly respected in Australia for their academic research and contributions to equity in architecture through Parlour.
- Die Gender-Dimension, das heißt unter anderem die Frage, ob Frauen und Männer aufgrund ihrer sozialen Rollen unterschiedliche Nutzungswünsche an Bauprojekte richten - und falls ja, welche das sind -, ist jedoch noch kaum zur Sprache gekommen. Dabei sind es gerade Gender-ExpertInnen, die dazu beitragen, dass auch die soziale Nachhaltigkeit in die Planung eingeht und damit in die Nutzung integriert wird.
Maya Karácsony, Architektin SIA, engagiert sich bereits seit 2009 bei dem Projekt Lares - Gender- und alltagsgerechtes Planen und Bauen. Lares setzt dies seit 2006 in der Schweiz um. Die Lares-Fachfrauen beurteilten zahlreiche Bauprojekte aus der Gender-Perspektive. www.lares.ch Dies sollte z.B. auch auf Wikipedia ersichtlich sein. Flaneurin (talk) 09:16, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Friederike Beecken, Hamburg/Germany: I strongly believe that we need this kind of initiative to support girls in the belief that they can achieve their dream of a profession, no matter what any traditional role-model suggest. Go on and strive!
- This is a very relevant project -- to create and maintain the presence of women designers and architects in extended culture. Magrippa77 (talk) 12:12, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- This project will give a boost to the visibility of women who are part of one of the mos male dominated professions theat exist. Mph-coco (talk) 12:34, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Lian Chikako Chang: I participated in the recent #WikiD event. Even though I've done advocacy on diversity in architecture and am aware of how underrepresented women are in the field, I was surprised to see how women were (not) represented in Wikipedia's architecture-related content. I found citations of articles where world-renowned female architects are referred to as "he," descriptions of firms where the male co-founder is listed as a "founder" and the female co-founder listed as a "co-founder" (or not listed at all), and many places where prominent women in the field simply are not mentioned. The organizers of this effort have proven that they can gather the architecture community's attention and time in order to make a positive impact, so I think they're a great choice for this funding.
- It is essential for the progress of the profession to address the gender bias and underrepresentation of women in architecture, urbanism, design and construction.
- It is essential for the progress of the profession to address the gender bias and underrepresentation of women in architecture, urbanism, design and construction.
- I will leave a message in some projects at "local" level.--Alexmar983 (talk) 16:51, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- This initiative to increase the online presence of women in architecture will raise awareness about the diversity of the design professions, and will also strengthen and grow preexisting networks that seek gender equality and fairness in the building industries. Its impact, both in terms of the end result and the process itself, will be considerable. 22.214.171.124 17:03, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Vor allem in Berufsgattungen wie der Architektur, wo es keine klare akademische Laufbahn mit wissenschaftlichen Publikationen gibt, ist es umso wichtiger, dass andere mediale Kanäle genutzt werden und belegen, welche Bedeutung eine Person in ihrem beruflichen Umfeld geniesst, was sie leistet und bewirkt. Architektinnen erscheinen noch viel zu selten! Damit sich das ändert, unterstütze ich diesen Vorschlag vehement. Veronika Selig, Basel, Schweiz. Veronika selig (talk) 18:32, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- This is a fabulous project, well thought through and addressing an ongoing problem. As a PhD candidate working on women and architecture, and as a teacher, I regularly see the glaring lack of online resources about women in architecture. There are so many women who have made significant contributions to architecture and the built environments which make up the physical experience of our lives. I fully endorse this project. --Jamwia (talk) 20:32, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Women architects are, compared to their share in academic education underrepresented in practice, notably in designing representative / high inverstment architecture. It is both necessary to provide more models fpr young women architects and to make the profession and the broader public aware of women architects' design capacities and in certain fields also the potential that a specific sensitivity has for the usabilty of architecture, e.g. in vernacular architecture or public space design or any kind of infrastructural architecture. ArchphD (talk) 21:18, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- Making the architectural work of women visible is important for the younger generation of female architects. Lynda Simmons (talk) 21:23, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- It's needed. 126.96.36.199 21:24, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- The work of women architects, both historical and contemporary, is under-described in print media, and online publication is an excellent way to increase their visibility. We fully support the work of ArchiteXX, Parlour and others and wish to assist where we can. Architecture+Women NZ Inc (talk) 21:31, 31 March 2015 (UTC)
- We need the voices of female architects be heard amongst the community and for the work to be acknowledged in the broader community. As a woman graduate architect this is very important for me as well. MagdalenaJS (talk) 01:36, 1 April 2015 (UTC)
- I participated in the #ArchXX event on International Womens' Day. As an architectural journalist and ex-academic, I've seen how important it is to have ready access to reliable information on architects. Here in Canada, there are many prominent female practitioners, but a big gender disparity in Wikipedia: 200 male architects and 11 women (two of which I wrote entries for last month). I would not only endorse this effort, but would be ready to organize a Canada/Toronto effort to address this issue.--Elsalam01 (talk) 19:26, 1 April 2015 (UTC)
- because it is a good idea ChristophThomas (talk) 18:05, 11 April 2015 (UTC)
- It's necessary in our urban world to know who has contributed to the building and planning of our cities. Rl1573r (talk) 01:50, 27 April 2015 (UTC)
- Yes what is 'notability' is a big issue! Frederika Eilers (talk) 15:44, 1 May 2015 (UTC)
- Despina Stratigakos, “Unforgetting Women Architects: From the Pritzker to Wikipedia,”Places Journal, June 2013. Accessed 26 Mar 2015.