Help:显示数学公式

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MediaWiki使用TeXLaTeXAMS-LaTeX的语法来显示数学公式。根据用户的参数设置及公式的复杂程度,公式会用PNG图像显示,或用HTML元素模拟。

More precisely, MediaWiki filters the markup through Texvc, which in turn passes the commands to TeX for the actual rendering. Thus, only a limited part of the full TeX language is supported; see below for details.

要渲染数学公式,您必须在LocalSettings.php中设置$wgUseTeX = true;

技术信息[edit]

语法[edit]

Traditionally, math markup goes inside the XML-style tag math: <math> ... </math>. The old edit toolbar has the button for this, and it is possible to customize the WikiEditor toolbar to add a similar button. The icons are like these: Mathematical formula (LaTeX) and .

解析器函数#tag也能用来显示公式: {{#tag:math|...}}

这个方法更加强大,因为解析器函数的参数会先展开,然后再解释为TeX代码。所以这里可以包含模板参数、变量、其他解析器函数、其他模板等。Note however that with this 语法 double braces in the TeX 代码 must have a space in between, to avoid confusion with their use in 模板 calls etc. 另外,如果要在公式里显示“|”管道符号,需要用{{!}}代替。[1]

TeX中,就像在HTML中,额外的空格和新行会被忽略。

渲染[edit]

By default, the PNG images are black on white (not transparent), but since bug 8 was fixed (see rev:59550) these colors can be customized for each formula. The colors, as well as font sizes and types, are independent of browser settings or CSS. Font sizes and types will often deviate from what HTML renders. Vertical alignment with the surrounding text can also be a problem (see bug 32694). The css selector of the images is img.tex.

The alt text of the PNG images, which is displayed to visually impaired and other readers who cannot see the images, and is also used when the text is selected and copied, defaults to the 维基源代码 that produced the image, excluding the <math> and </math>. You can override this by explicitly specifying an alt attribute for the math element. For example, <math alt="Square root of pi">\sqrt{\pi}</math> generates an image whose alt text is "Square root of pi".

Apart from function and operator names, as is customary in mathematics for variables, letters are in italics; digits are not. For other text, (like variable labels) to avoid being rendered in italics like variables, use \text, \mbox, or \mathrm. You can also define new function names using \operatorname{...}. For example, <math>\text{abc}</math> gives . This does not work for 特殊字符, they are ignored unless the whole <math> expression is rendered in HTML:

  • <math>\text {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčďèéěêëìíîïňñòóôõöřšť÷øùúůûüýÿž}</math>
  • <math>\text {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčèéêëìíîïñòóôõö÷øùúûüýÿ}\,</math>

会提供:

参见错误798以获取详细信息。

Nevertheless, using \mbox instead of \text, more characters are allowed

For example,

  • <math>\mbox {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčďèéěêëìíîïňñòóôõöřšť÷øùúůûüýÿž}</math>
  • <math>\mbox {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčèéêëìíîïñòóôõö÷øùúûüýÿ}\,</math>

gives:

But \mbox{ð} and \mbox{þ} will give an error:

Using \text{}

特殊字符[edit]

跟Latex里一样,以下字符是保留字。

# $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \

如果需要显示这些保留字,就要在前面加上斜杠(\)。

<math>\# \$ \% \& \_ \{ \} </math>显示为

其他拥有特殊名称:

<math> \hat{} \quad \tilde{} \quad \backslash </math>显示为

TeX和HTML[edit]

Before introducing TeX markup for producing 特殊字符, it should be noted that, as this comparison table shows, sometimes similar results can be achieved in HTML (see Help:Special characters).

TeX语法(强制PNG TeX渲染 HTML语法 HTML渲染
<math>\alpha</math> {{math|<var>&alpha;</var>}} α
<math> f(x) = x^2\,</math> {{math|''f''(<var>x</var>) {{=}} <var>x</var><sup>2</sup>}} f(x) = x2
<math>\sqrt{2}</math> {{math|{{radical|2}}}} 2
<math>\sqrt{1-e^2}</math> {{math|{{radical|1 &minus; ''e''&sup2;}}}} 1 − e²

The 代码 on the left produce the symbols on the right, but the latter can also be put directly in the 维基源代码, except for ‘=’.

语法 渲染
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infty;
&asymp; &prop; {{=}} &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; 
&times; &sdot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &Oslash; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; 
&cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; 
&rArr; &hArr; &rarr; &harr; &uarr; 
&alefsym; - &ndash; &mdash; 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ = ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× ⋅ ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ Ø ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇔ → ↔ ↑
ℵ - – —

The project has settled on both HTML and TeX because each has advantages in some situations.

HTML的好处[edit]

  1. 公式 in HTML behave more like regular text. In-line HTML 公式 always align properly with the rest of the HTML text and, to some degree, can be cut-and-pasted (this is not a problem if TeX is rendered using MathJax, and the alignment should not be a problem for PNG rendering once bug 32694 is fixed).
  2. The 公式’s background and font size match the rest of HTML contents (this can be fixed on TeX 公式 by using the commands \pagecolor and \definecolor) and the appearance respects CSS and 浏览器 settings while the typeface is conveniently altered to help you identify 公式.
  3. Pages using HTML 代码 for 公式 use less data to transmit, which is important to users with slow or capped Internet connections (e.g. those using dialup or mobile Internet connections which are either slow or have a data cap).
  4. 公式 typeset with HTML 代码 will be accessible to client-side script links (a.k.a. scriptlets).
  5. The display of a 公式 entered using mathematical 模板 can be conveniently altered by modifying the 模板 involved; this modification will affect all relevant 公式 without any manual intervention.
  6. The HTML 代码, if entered diligently, will contain all semantic information to transform the 公式 back to TeX or any other 代码 as needed. It can even contain differences TeX does not normally catch, e.g. {{math|''i''}} for the imaginary unit and {{math|<var>i</var>}} for an arbitrary index variable.
  7. 公式 using HTML 代码 will render as sharp as possible no matter what device is used to render them.

TeX的好处[edit]

  1. TeX is semantically more precise than HTML.
    1. In TeX, "<math>x</math>" means "mathematical variable ", whereas in HTML "x" is generic and somewhat ambiguous.
    2. On the other hand, if you encode the same 公式 as "{{math|<var>x</var>}}", you get the same visual result x and no information is lost. This requires diligence and more typing that could make the 公式 harder to understand as you type it. However, since there are far more readers than editors, this effort is worth considering if no other rendering options are available (such as MathJax, which was requested on bug 31406 for use on Wikimedia wikis and is being implemented on Extension:Math as a new rendering option).
  2. One consequence of point 1 is that TeX 代码 can be transformed into HTML, but not vice-versa.[1] This means that on the server side we can always transform a 公式, based on its complexity and location within the text, user preferences, type of 浏览器, etc. Therefore, where possible, all the benefits of HTML can be retained, together with the benefits of TeX. It is true that the current situation is not ideal, but that is not a good reason to drop information/contents. It is more a reason to help improve the situation.
  3. Another consequence of point 1 is that TeX can be converted to MathML (e.g. by MathJax) for 浏览器 which support it, thus keeping its semantics and allowing the rendering to be better suited for the reader’s graphic device.
  4. TeX is the preferred text formatting language of most professional mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. It is easier to persuade them to contribute if they can write in TeX.
  5. TeX has been specifically designed for typesetting 公式, so input is easier and more natural if you are accustomed to it, and output is more aesthetically pleasing if you focus on a single 公式 rather than on the whole containing page.
  6. Once a 公式 is done correctly in TeX, it will render reliably, whereas the success of HTML 公式 is somewhat dependent on 浏览器 or versions of 浏览器. Another aspect of this dependency is fonts: the serif font used for rendering 公式 is 浏览器-dependent and it may be missing some important glyphs. While the 浏览器 generally capable to substitute a matching glyph from a different font family, it need not be the case for combined glyphs (compare ‘  ’ and ‘  ’).
  7. When writing in TeX, editors need not worry about whether this or that version of this or that 浏览器 supports this or that HTML entity. The burden of these decisions is put on the software. This does not hold for HTML 公式, which can easily end up being rendered wrongly or differently from the editor’s intentions on a different 浏览器.[2]
  8. TeX 公式, by default, render larger and are usually more readable than HTML 公式 and are not dependent on client-side 浏览器 resources, such as fonts, and so the results are more reliably WYSIWYG.
  9. While TeX does not assist you in finding HTML 代码 or Unicode values (which you can obtain by viewing the HTML源代码 in your 浏览器), cutting and pasting from a TeX PNG in 维基百科 into simple text will return the LaTeX源代码.
^  unless your 维基源代码 follows the style of point 1.2
^  The entity support problem is not limited to 数学公式 though; it can be easily solved by using the corresponding字符 instead of entities, as the字符 repertoire links do, except for cases where the corresponding glyphs are visually indiscernible (e.g. &ndash; for ‘–’ and &minus; for ‘−’).

In some cases it may be the best choice to use neither TeX nor the html-substitutes, but instead the simple ASCII symbols of a standard keyboard (see below, for an example).

函数、符号和特殊字符[edit]

Accents/diacritics[edit]

\acute{a} \grave{a} \hat{a} \tilde{a} \breve{a}
\check{a} \bar{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a}

标准函数[edit]

\sin a \cos b \tan c
\sec d \csc e \cot f
\arcsin h \arccos i \arctan j
\sinh k \cosh l \tanh m \coth n
\operatorname{sh}o\,\operatorname{ch}p\,\operatorname{th}q
\operatorname{arsinh}r\,\operatorname{arcosh}s\,\operatorname{artanh}t
\lim u \limsup v \liminf w \min x \max y
\inf z \sup a \exp b \ln c \lg d \log e \log_{10} f \ker g
\deg h \gcd i \Pr j \det k \hom l \arg m \dim n

Modular arithmetic[edit]

s_k \equiv 0 \pmod{m}
a\,\bmod\,b

衍生[edit]

\nabla \, \partial x \, dx \, \dot x \, \ddot y\, dy/dx\, \frac{dy}{dx}\, \frac{\partial^2 y}{\partial x_1\,\partial x_2}

集合[edit]

\forall \exists \empty \emptyset \varnothing
\in \ni \not \in \notin \subset \subseteq \supset \supseteq
\cap \bigcap \cup \bigcup \biguplus \setminus \smallsetminus
\sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqcap \sqcup \bigsqcup

运算符[edit]

+ \oplus \bigoplus \pm \mp -
\times \otimes \bigotimes \cdot \circ \bullet \bigodot
\star * / \div \frac{1}{2}

逻辑[edit]

\land (or \and) \wedge \bigwedge \bar{q} \to p
\lor \vee \bigvee \lnot \neg q \And

[edit]

\sqrt{2} \sqrt[n]{x}

关系[edit]

\sim \approx \simeq \cong \dot= \overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}
< \le \ll \gg \ge > \equiv \not\equiv \ne \mbox{or} \neq \propto
\lessapprox \lesssim \eqslantless \leqslant \leqq \geqq \geqslant \eqslantgtr \gtrsim \gtrapprox

Geometric[edit]

\Diamond \Box \triangle \angle \perp \mid \nmid \| 45^\circ

数组[edit]

\leftarrow (or \gets) \rightarrow (or \to) \nleftarrow \nrightarrow \leftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \longleftarrow \longrightarrow \longleftrightarrow
\Leftarrow \Rightarrow \nLeftarrow \nRightarrow \Leftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \Longleftarrow (or \impliedby) \Longrightarrow (or \implies) \Longleftrightarrow (or \iff)
\uparrow \downarrow \updownarrow \Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \nearrow \searrow \swarrow \nwarrow
\rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons
\curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \Rrightarrow \rightarrowtail \looparrowright
\curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft
\mapsto \longmapsto \hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow

特殊[edit]

\And \eth \S \P \% \dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots \colon
\smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright \infty \bot \top
\vdash \vDash \Vdash \models \lVert \rVert \imath \hbar
\ell \mho \Finv \Re \Im \wp \complement
\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game \flat \natural \sharp

Unsorted (new stuff)[edit]

\vartriangle \triangledown \lozenge \circledS \measuredangle \nexists \Bbbk \backprime \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown
\square \blacksquare \blacklozenge \bigstar \sphericalangle \diagup \diagdown \dotplus \Cap \Cup \barwedge
\veebar \doublebarwedge \boxminus \boxtimes \boxdot \boxplus \divideontimes \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes
\rightthreetimes \curlywedge \curlyvee \circleddash \circledast \circledcirc \centerdot \intercal \leqq \leqslant
\eqslantless \lessapprox \approxeq \lessdot \lll \lessgtr \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \doteqdot \risingdotseq
\fallingdotseq \backsim \backsimeq \subseteqq \Subset \preccurlyeq \curlyeqprec \precsim \precapprox \vartriangleleft
\Vvdash \bumpeq \Bumpeq \eqsim \gtrdot
\ggg \gtrless \gtreqless \gtreqqless \eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \thicksim \thickapprox \supseteqq
\Supset \succcurlyeq \curlyeqsucc \succsim \succapprox \vartriangleright \shortmid \between \shortparallel \pitchfork
\varpropto \blacktriangleleft \therefore \backepsilon \blacktriangleright \because \nleqslant \nleqq \lneq \lneqq
\lvertneqq \lnsim \lnapprox \nprec \npreceq \precneqq \precnsim \precnapprox \nsim \nshortmid
\nvdash \nVdash \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \varsubsetneq \subsetneqq \varsubsetneqq \ngtr
\subsetneq
\ngeqslant \ngeqq \gneq \gneqq \gvertneqq \gnsim \gnapprox \nsucc \nsucceq \succneqq
\succnsim \succnapprox \ncong \nshortparallel \nparallel \nvDash \nVDash \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \nsupseteq
\nsupseteqq \varsupsetneq \supsetneqq \varsupsetneqq
\jmath \surd \ast \uplus \diamond \bigtriangleup \bigtriangledown \ominus
\oslash \odot \bigcirc \amalg \prec \succ \preceq \succeq
\dashv \asymp \doteq \parallel
\ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner
\Coppa\coppa\varcoppa\Digamma\Koppa\koppa\Sampi\sampi\Stigma\stigma\varstigma

大型运算符[edit]

下标、上标、积分[edit]

功能 语法 它看起来会怎样渲染
上标 a^2
下标 a_2
分组 a^{2+2}
a_{i,j}
Combining sub & super without and with horizontal separation x_2^3
{x_2}^3
超级超级 10^{10^{8}}
Preceding and/or Additional sub & super _nP_k
\sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\prod_a^b
{}_1^2\!\Omega_3^4
堆叠 \overset{\alpha}{\omega}
\underset{\alpha}{\omega}
\overset{\alpha}{\underset{\gamma}{\omega}}
\stackrel{\alpha}{\omega}
Derivatives x', y'', f', f''
x^\prime, y^{\prime\prime}
Derivative dots \dot{x}, \ddot{x}
Underlines, overlines, vectors \hat a \ \bar b \ \vec c
\overrightarrow{a b} \ \overleftarrow{c d} \ \widehat{d e f}
\overline{g h i} \ \underline{j k l}
\not 1 \ \cancel{123}
Arrows A \xleftarrow{n+\mu-1} B \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i-1} C
Overbraces \overbrace{ 1+2+\cdots+100 }^{\text{sum}\,=\,5050}
Underbraces \underbrace{ a+b+\cdots+z }_{26\text{ terms}}
总和 \sum_{k=1}^N k^2
Sum (force \textstyle) \textstyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2
产品 \prod_{i=1}^N x_i
产品 (force \textstyle) \textstyle \prod_{i=1}^N x_i
Coproduct \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
Coproduct (force \textstyle) \textstyle \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
限制 \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n
限制 (force \textstyle) \textstyle \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n
Integral \int\limits_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx
Integral (alternate limits style) \int_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx
Integral (force \textstyle) \textstyle \int\limits_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx
Integral (force \textstyle, alternate limits style) \textstyle \int_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx
Double integral \iint\limits_D \, dx\,dy
Triple integral \iiint\limits_E \, dx\,dy\,dz
Quadruple integral \iiiint\limits_F \, dx\,dy\,dz\,dt
Line or path integral \int_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy
Closed line or path integral \oint_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy
Intersections \bigcap_1^n p
Unions \bigcup_1^k p

分数、矩阵、多线[edit]

功能 语法 它看起来会怎样渲染
Fractions \frac{1}{2}=0.5
Small ("text style") fractions \tfrac{1}{2} = 0.5
Large ("display style") fractions \dfrac{k}{k-1} = 0.5
Mixture of large and small fractions \dfrac{ \tfrac{1}{2}[1-(\tfrac{1}{2})^n] }{ 1-\tfrac{1}{2} } = s_n
Continued fractions (note the difference in formatting)
\cfrac{2}{ c + \cfrac{2}{ d + \cfrac{1}{2} } } = a
\qquad
\dfrac{2}{ c + \dfrac{2}{ d + \dfrac{1}{2} } } = a
Binomial coefficients \binom{n}{k}
Small ("text style") binomial coefficients \tbinom{n}{k}
Large ("display style") binomial coefficients \dbinom{n}{k}
矩阵
\begin{matrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{matrix}
\begin{vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{vmatrix}
\begin{Vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Vmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
0      & \cdots & 0      \\
\vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 
0      & \cdots & 0
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{Bmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Bmatrix}
\begin{pmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{pmatrix}
\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}
a&b\\ c&d
\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)
数组
\begin{array}{|c|c||c|} a & b & S \\
\hline
0&0&1\\
0&1&1\\
1&0&1\\
1&1&0
\end{array}
Cases
f(n) = 
\begin{cases} 
n/2,  & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even} \\
3n+1, & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is odd} 
\end{cases}
System of equations
\begin{cases}
3x + 5y +  z &= 1 \\
7x - 2y + 4z &= 2 \\
-6x + 3y + 2z &= 3
\end{cases}
Breaking up a long expression so it wraps when necessary
<math>f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n</math>
<math>= a_0 + a_1x + a_2x^2 + \cdots</math>
Multiline equations
\begin{align}
f(x) & = (a+b)^2 \\
& = a^2+2ab+b^2
\end{align}
\begin{alignat}{2}
f(x) & = (a-b)^2 \\
& = a^2-2ab+b^2
\end{alignat}
Multiline equations with aligment specified (left, center, right)
\begin{array}{lcl}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z  
\end{array}
\begin{array}{lcr}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z     
\end{array}

为大表达式加括号、线条等[edit]

功能 语法 How it looks rendered
不良 ( \frac{1}{2} )
良好 \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )

You can use various delimiters with \left and \right:

功能 语法 它看起来会怎样渲染
圆括号 \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )
方括号 \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack
花括号 (note the backslash before the braces in the code) \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace
Angle brackets \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle
Bars and double bars (note: "bars" provide the absolute value function) \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|
Floor and ceiling functions: \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil
Slashes and backslashes \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash
Up, down and up-down arrows \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow
Delimiters can be mixed, as long as \left and \right are both used \left [ 0,1 \right )
\left \langle \psi \right |

Use \left. or \right. if you don't want a delimiter to appear: \left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X
Size of the delimiters \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \dots \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]
\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ \dots \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle
\big| \Big| \bigg| \Bigg| \dots \Bigg\| \bigg\| \Big\| \big\|
\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor \dots \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil
\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow \dots \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow
\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow \dots \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow
\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / \dots \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash

Alphabets and typefaces[edit]

Texvc cannot render arbitrary Unicode字符. Those it can handle can be entered by the expressions below. For others, such as Cyrillic, they can be entered as Unicode or HTML entities in running text, but cannot be used in displayed 公式.

Greek alphabet
\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta
\Eta \Theta \Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu
\Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi \Rho \Sigma \Tau
\Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega
\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta
\eta \theta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu
\nu \xi \omicron \pi \rho \sigma \tau
\upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega
\varepsilon \digamma \vartheta \varkappa
\varpi \varrho \varsigma \varphi
Blackboard Bold/Scripts
\mathbb{A} \mathbb{B} \mathbb{C} \mathbb{D} \mathbb{E} \mathbb{F} \mathbb{G}
\mathbb{H} \mathbb{I} \mathbb{J} \mathbb{K} \mathbb{L} \mathbb{M}
\mathbb{N} \mathbb{O} \mathbb{P} \mathbb{Q} \mathbb{R} \mathbb{S} \mathbb{T}
\mathbb{U} \mathbb{V} \mathbb{W} \mathbb{X} \mathbb{Y} \mathbb{Z}
\C \N \Q \R \Z
boldface (vectors)
\mathbf{A} \mathbf{B} \mathbf{C} \mathbf{D} \mathbf{E} \mathbf{F} \mathbf{G}
\mathbf{H} \mathbf{I} \mathbf{J} \mathbf{K} \mathbf{L} \mathbf{M}
\mathbf{N} \mathbf{O} \mathbf{P} \mathbf{Q} \mathbf{R} \mathbf{S} \mathbf{T}
\mathbf{U} \mathbf{V} \mathbf{W} \mathbf{X} \mathbf{Y} \mathbf{Z}
\mathbf{a} \mathbf{b} \mathbf{c} \mathbf{d} \mathbf{e} \mathbf{f} \mathbf{g}
\mathbf{h} \mathbf{i} \mathbf{j} \mathbf{k} \mathbf{l} \mathbf{m}
\mathbf{n} \mathbf{o} \mathbf{p} \mathbf{q} \mathbf{r} \mathbf{s} \mathbf{t}
\mathbf{u} \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} \mathbf{x} \mathbf{y} \mathbf{z}
\mathbf{0} \mathbf{1} \mathbf{2} \mathbf{3} \mathbf{4}
\mathbf{5} \mathbf{6} \mathbf{7} \mathbf{8} \mathbf{9}
Boldface (greek)
\boldsymbol{\Alpha} \boldsymbol{\Beta} \boldsymbol{\Gamma} \boldsymbol{\Delta} \boldsymbol{\Epsilon} \boldsymbol{\Zeta}
\boldsymbol{\Eta} \boldsymbol{\Theta} \boldsymbol{\Iota} \boldsymbol{\Kappa} \boldsymbol{\Lambda} \boldsymbol{\Mu}
\boldsymbol{\Nu} \boldsymbol{\Xi} \boldsymbol{\Pi} \boldsymbol{\Rho} \boldsymbol{\Sigma} \boldsymbol{\Tau}
\boldsymbol{\Upsilon} \boldsymbol{\Phi} \boldsymbol{\Chi} \boldsymbol{\Psi} \boldsymbol{\Omega}
\boldsymbol{\alpha} \boldsymbol{\beta} \boldsymbol{\gamma} \boldsymbol{\delta} \boldsymbol{\epsilon} \boldsymbol{\zeta}
\boldsymbol{\eta} \boldsymbol{\theta} \boldsymbol{\iota} \boldsymbol{\kappa} \boldsymbol{\lambda} \boldsymbol{\mu}
\boldsymbol{\nu} \boldsymbol{\xi} \boldsymbol{\pi} \boldsymbol{\rho} \boldsymbol{\sigma} \boldsymbol{\tau}
\boldsymbol{\upsilon} \boldsymbol{\phi} \boldsymbol{\chi} \boldsymbol{\psi} \boldsymbol{\omega}
\boldsymbol{\varepsilon} \boldsymbol{\digamma} \boldsymbol{\vartheta} \boldsymbol{\varkappa}
\boldsymbol{\varpi} \boldsymbol{\varrho} \boldsymbol{\varsigma} \boldsymbol{\varphi}
Italics
\mathit{A} \mathit{B} \mathit{C} \mathit{D} \mathit{E} \mathit{F} \mathit{G}
\mathit{H} \mathit{I} \mathit{J} \mathit{K} \mathit{L} \mathit{M}
\mathit{N} \mathit{O} \mathit{P} \mathit{Q} \mathit{R} \mathit{S} \mathit{T}
\mathit{U} \mathit{V} \mathit{W} \mathit{X} \mathit{Y} \mathit{Z}
\mathit{a} \mathit{b} \mathit{c} \mathit{d} \mathit{e} \mathit{f} \mathit{g}
\mathit{h} \mathit{i} \mathit{j} \mathit{k} \mathit{l} \mathit{m}
\mathit{n} \mathit{o} \mathit{p} \mathit{q} \mathit{r} \mathit{s} \mathit{t}
\mathit{u} \mathit{v} \mathit{w} \mathit{x} \mathit{y} \mathit{z}
\mathit{0} \mathit{1} \mathit{2} \mathit{3} \mathit{4}
\mathit{5} \mathit{6} \mathit{7} \mathit{8} \mathit{9}
Roman typeface
\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \mathrm{C} \mathrm{D} \mathrm{E} \mathrm{F} \mathrm{G}
\mathrm{H} \mathrm{I} \mathrm{J} \mathrm{K} \mathrm{L} \mathrm{M}
\mathrm{N} \mathrm{O} \mathrm{P} \mathrm{Q} \mathrm{R} \mathrm{S} \mathrm{T}
\mathrm{U} \mathrm{V} \mathrm{W} \mathrm{X} \mathrm{Y} \mathrm{Z}
\mathrm{a} \mathrm{b} \mathrm{c} \mathrm{d} \mathrm{e} \mathrm{f} \mathrm{g}
\mathrm{h} \mathrm{i} \mathrm{j} \mathrm{k} \mathrm{l} \mathrm{m}
\mathrm{n} \mathrm{o} \mathrm{p} \mathrm{q} \mathrm{r} \mathrm{s} \mathrm{t}
\mathrm{u} \mathrm{v} \mathrm{w} \mathrm{x} \mathrm{y} \mathrm{z}
\mathrm{0} \mathrm{1} \mathrm{2} \mathrm{3} \mathrm{4}
\mathrm{5} \mathrm{6} \mathrm{7} \mathrm{8} \mathrm{9}
Fraktur typeface
\mathfrak{A} \mathfrak{B} \mathfrak{C} \mathfrak{D} \mathfrak{E} \mathfrak{F} \mathfrak{G}
\mathfrak{H} \mathfrak{I} \mathfrak{J} \mathfrak{K} \mathfrak{L} \mathfrak{M}
\mathfrak{N} \mathfrak{O} \mathfrak{P} \mathfrak{Q} \mathfrak{R} \mathfrak{S} \mathfrak{T}
\mathfrak{U} \mathfrak{V} \mathfrak{W} \mathfrak{X} \mathfrak{Y} \mathfrak{Z}
\mathfrak{a} \mathfrak{b} \mathfrak{c} \mathfrak{d} \mathfrak{e} \mathfrak{f} \mathfrak{g}
\mathfrak{h} \mathfrak{i} \mathfrak{j} \mathfrak{k} \mathfrak{l} \mathfrak{m}
\mathfrak{n} \mathfrak{o} \mathfrak{p} \mathfrak{q} \mathfrak{r} \mathfrak{s} \mathfrak{t}
\mathfrak{u} \mathfrak{v} \mathfrak{w} \mathfrak{x} \mathfrak{y} \mathfrak{z}
\mathfrak{0} \mathfrak{1} \mathfrak{2} \mathfrak{3} \mathfrak{4}
\mathfrak{5} \mathfrak{6} \mathfrak{7} \mathfrak{8} \mathfrak{9}
Calligraphy/Script
\mathcal{A} \mathcal{B} \mathcal{C} \mathcal{D} \mathcal{E} \mathcal{F} \mathcal{G}
\mathcal{H} \mathcal{I} \mathcal{J} \mathcal{K} \mathcal{L} \mathcal{M}
\mathcal{N} \mathcal{O} \mathcal{P} \mathcal{Q} \mathcal{R} \mathcal{S} \mathcal{T}
\mathcal{U} \mathcal{V} \mathcal{W} \mathcal{X} \mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z}
Hebrew
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth


Feature 语法 How it looks rendered
non-italicised字符 \mbox{abc}
mixed italics (bad) \mbox{if} n \mbox{is even}
mixed italics (good) \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even}
mixed italics (more legible: ~ is a non-breaking space, while "\ " forces a space) \mbox{if}~n\ \mbox{is even}

颜色[edit]

公式可以有颜色:

  • {\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{YellowOrange}2x}-{\color{OliveGreen}1}
  • x_{1,2}=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{\color{Red}b^2-4ac}}{2a}

自从r59550版本后,公式的背景颜色也可以修改了。

背景色 源代码 效果
白色 e^{i \pi} + 1 = 0
\definecolor{orange}{RGB}{255,165,0}\pagecolor{orange}e^{i \pi} + 1 = 0
桔黄色 e^{i \pi} + 1 = 0
\definecolor{orange}{RGB}{255,165,0}\pagecolor{orange}e^{i \pi} + 1 = 0

所有的已命名颜色可以在这里找到。

如果需要对公式进行标识,不要仅仅使用颜色。黑白打印后就看不出颜色了,而且有人可能是色盲。另见en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Color coding

Formatting issues[edit]

Spacing[edit]

Note that TeX handles most spacing automatically, but you may sometimes want manual control.

Feature 语法 How it looks rendered
double quad space a \qquad b
quad space a \quad b
text space a\ b
text space without PNG conversion a \mbox{ } b
large space a\;b
medium space a\>b [not supported]
small space a\,b
no space ab
small negative space a\!b

Automatic spacing may be broken in very long expressions (because they produce an overfull hbox in TeX):

<math>0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots</math>

This can be remedied by putting a pair of braces { } around the whole expression:

<math>{0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots}</math>

Alignment with normal text flow[edit]

Due to the default css

img.tex { vertical-align: middle; }

an inline expression like should look good.

If you need to align it otherwise, use <math style="vertical-align:-100%;">...</math> and play with the vertical-align argument until you get it right; however, how it looks may depend on the 浏览器 and the 浏览器 settings.

Also note that if you rely on this workaround, if/when the rendering on the server gets fixed in future releases, as a result of this extra manual offset your 公式 will suddenly be aligned incorrectly. So use it sparingly, if at all.

Commutative diagrams[edit]

To make a commutative diagram, there are three steps:

TeX中的图表[edit]

Xy-pic在线指导)是最强大,最通用的TeX图表包。

Simpler packages include:

The following is a 模板 for Xy-pic, together with a hack to increase the margins in dvips, so that the diagram is not truncated by over-eager cropping (suggested in TUGboat TUGboat, Volume 17 1996, No. 3):

\documentclass{amsart}
\usepackage[all, ps]{xy} % Loading the XY-Pic package 
                         % Using postscript driver for smoother curves
\usepackage{color}       % For invisible frame
\begin{document}
\thispagestyle{empty} % No page numbers
\SelectTips{eu}{}     % Euler arrowheads (tips)
\setlength{\fboxsep}{0pt} % Frame box margin
{\color{white}\framebox{{\color{black}$$ % Frame for margin
</div>

\xymatrix{ % The diagram is a 3x3 matrix
%%% Diagram goes here %%%
}

$$}}} % end math, end frame
\end{document}

Convert to SVG[edit]

Once you have produced your diagram in LaTeX (or TeX), you can convert it to an SVG file using the following sequence of commands:

pdflatex file.tex
pdfcrop --clip file.pdf tmp.pdf
pdf2svg tmp.pdf file.svg
  (rm tmp.pdf at the end)

pdflatex and the pdfcrop and pdf2svg utilities are needed for this procedure.

If you do not have these programs, you can also use the commands

latex file.tex
dvipdfm file.dvi

to get a PDF version of your diagram.

Programs[edit]

In general, you will not be able to get anywhere with diagrams without TeX and Ghostscript, and the inkscape program is a useful tool for creating or modifying your diagrams by hand. There is also a utility pstoedit which supports direct conversion from Postscript files to many vector graphics formats, but it requires a non-free plugin to convert to SVG, and regardless of the format, this editor has not been successful in using it to convert diagrams with diagonal arrows from TeX-created files.

These programs are:

上传文件[edit]

See also: commons:Commons:First steps/Upload form
See also: en:Help:Contents/Images and media

As the diagram is your own work, 上传 it to Wikimedia Commons, so that all projects (notably, all languages) can use it without having to copy it to their language's Wiki. (If you've previously 上传 a 文件 to somewhere other than Commons, transwiki it to Commons.)

Check size
Before 上传, check that the default size of the image is neither too large nor too small by opening in an SVG application and viewing at default size (100% scaling), otherwise adjust the -y option to dvips.
Name
Make sure the 文件 has a meaningful name.
上传
Login to Wikimedia Commons, then 上传 the 文件; for the Summary, give a brief description.

Now go to the image page and add a description, including the 源代码, using this 模板 (using {{Information}}):

{{Information
|Description =
{{en| Description [[:en:Link to WP page|topic]]
}}
|Source = {{own}}

Created as per:

[[:en:meta:Help:Displaying a formula#Commutative diagrams]]; source code below.
|Date = The Creation Date, like 1999-12-31
|Author = [[User:YourUserName|Your Real Name]]
|Permission = Public domain; (or other license) see below. 
}}

== LaTeX source ==
<source lang="latex">
% LaTeX source here
</source>

== [[Commons:Copyright tags|Licensing]]: ==
{{self|PD-self (or other license)|author=[[User:YourUserName|Your Real Name]]}}

[[Category:Descriptive categories, such as "Group theory"]]
[[Category:Commutative diagrams]]
Source code
  • Include the source code in the image page, in a LaTeX source section, so that the diagram can be edited in future.
  • Include the complete .tex file, not just the fragment, so future editors do not need to reconstruct a compilable file.
License
The most common license for commutative diagrams is PD-self; some use PD-ineligible, especially for simple diagrams, or other licenses. Please do not use the GFDL, as it requires the entire text of the GFDL to be attached to any document that uses the diagram.
Description
If possible, link to a Wikipedia page relevant to the diagram.
Category
Include [[Category:Commutative diagrams]], so that it appears in commons:Category:Commutative diagrams. There are also subcategories, which you may choose to use.
Include image
Now include the image on the original page via [[Image:Diagram.svg]]

Examples[edit]

A sample conforming diagram is commons:Image:PSU-PU.svg.

Chemistry[edit]

There are two ways to render chemical sum formulae as used in chemical equations:

  • <math chem>
  • <chem>

<chem>X</chem> is short for <math chem>\ce{X}</chem>

(where X is a chemical sum formula)

Technically, <math chem> is a math tag with the extension mhchem enabled, according to the mathjax documentation.

Note, that the commands \cee and \cf are disabled, because they are marked as deprecated in the mhchem LaTeX package documentation.

参见下面的例子。

示例[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

<chem>C6H5-CHO</chem>

<chem>\mathit{A} ->[\ce{+H2O}] \mathit{B}</chem>

<chem>{SO4^{2-}} + Ba^2+ -> BaSO4 v</chem>

<math chem>A \ce{->[\ce{+H2O}]} B</math>

<chem>H2O</chem>

<chem>Sb2O3</chem>

<chem>H+</chem>

<chem>CrO4^2-</chem>

<chem>AgCl2-</chem>

<chem>[AgCl2]-</chem>

<chem>Y^{99}+</chem>

<chem>Y^{99+}</chem>

<chem>H2_{(aq)}</chem>

<chem>NO3-</chem>

<chem>(NH4)2S</chem>

Quadratic Polynomial[edit]



<math>ax^2 + bx + c = 0</math>

Quadratic Polynomial (Force PNG Rendering)[edit]



<math>ax^2 + bx + c = 0\,</math>

Quadratic Formula[edit]



<math>x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}</math>

Tall Parentheses and Fractions[edit]



<math>2 = \left(
 \frac{\left(3-x\right) \times 2}{3-x}
 \right)</math>

 <math>S_{\text{new}} = S_{\text{old}} - \frac{ \left( 5-T \right) ^2} {2}</math>
 

Integrals[edit]



<math>\int_a^x \!\!\!\int_a^s f(y)\,dy\,ds
 = \int_a^x f(y)(x-y)\,dy</math>

Summation[edit]



<math>\sum_{m=1}^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{m^2\,n}
 {3^m\left(m\,3^n+n\,3^m\right)}</math>

Differential Equation[edit]



<math>u'' + p(x)u' + q(x)u=f(x),\quad x>a</math>

Complex numbers[edit]



<math>|\bar{z}| = |z|,
 |(\bar{z})^n| = |z|^n,
 \arg(z^n) = n \arg(z)</math>

Limits[edit]



<math>\lim_{z\rightarrow z_0} f(z)=f(z_0)</math>

Integral Equation[edit]



<math>\phi_n(\kappa) =
 \frac{1}{4\pi^2\kappa^2} \int_0^\infty
 \frac{\sin(\kappa R)}{\kappa R}
 \frac{\partial}{\partial R}
 \left[R^2\frac{\partial D_n(R)}{\partial R}\right]\,dR</math>

Example[edit]



<math>\phi_n(\kappa) = 
 0.033C_n^2\kappa^{-11/3},\quad
 \frac{1}{L_0}\ll\kappa\ll\frac{1}{l_0}</math>

Continuation and cases[edit]



<math>
 f(x) =
 \begin{cases}
 1 & -1 \le x < 0 \\
 \frac{1}{2} & x = 0 \\
 1 - x^2 & \mbox{otherwise}
 \end{cases}
 </math>

Prefixed subscript[edit]



 <math>{}_pF_q(a_1,\dots,a_p;c_1,\dots,c_q;z)
 = \sum_{n=0}^\infty
 \frac{(a_1)_n\cdots(a_p)_n}{(c_1)_n\cdots(c_q)_n}
 \frac{z^n}{n!}</math>

Fraction and small fraction[edit]


<math> \frac {a}{b}\  \tfrac {a}{b} </math>

Bug reports[edit]

Discussions, bug reports and feature requests should go to the Wikitech-l mailing list. These can also be filed on Mediazilla under MediaWiki extensions.

未来[edit]

In the future, once the MathJax option which was added to the Math extension is stable enough, it may be enabled on Wikimedia wikis (per bug 31406) as a better alternative for the PNG rendering of TeX 公式. MathJax is a JavaScript library for inline rendering of 数学公式, and can be used to translate LaTeX into MathML for direct interpretation by the 浏览器.

注释[edit]

  1. 这要求该维基站点有Template:!,用于显示"|"。很多维基站点都有,如w:Template:!

External links[edit]

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