Wikipedias in multiple writing systems
The article describes each Wikipedia that uses multiple writing systems. If you are a native speaker of one of the languages listed below which require automatic script conversion between writing systems, then you are welcome to help us write a comparative table with letters and transliteration rules. Then we can help you create such a converter.
You can also view the existing transliteration tools available online
With Automatic Conversion System
Some Wikipedia are using Automatic Conversion System.
The Vernacular Chinese (aka. Standard Chinese (cmn), use Chinese macrolanguage code zh on Wikimedia sites) language has two major writing systems: Simplified Chinese (zh-Hans) and traditional Chinese (zh-Hant), and has different localized vocabularies and syntaxes in different Sinophone areas.
Chinese Wikipedia (zhwiki), together with other zh.wiki* projects, support six variants:
- Simplified Chinese (Mainland China) (zh-Hans-CN)
- Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong) (zh-Hant-HK)
- Traditional Chinese (Macao) (zh-Hant-MO)
- Simplified Chinese (Malaysia) (zh-Hans-MY)
- Simplified Chinese (Singapore) (zh-Hans-SG)
- Traditional Chinese (Taiwan) (zh-Hant-TW)
Within the URLs, Wikidata labels, and probably database schemes, the variant tags are simplified as zh-cn, zh-hk, zh-mo, zh-my, zh-sg, and zh-tw. However, for the Wikidata, it's currently unclear that (together with zh-hans, zh-hant and original "zh") which variants should be used and which should not.
Read Automatic conversion between simplified and traditional Chinese for details. Anyway, they have their own bug report & feature request page at zh:Wikipedia:字词转换.
The Kazakh language has three writing systems: Cyrillic (kk-Cyrl), Latin (kk-Latn), and Perso-Arabic (kk-Arab). So, the Kazakh Wikipedia (kkwiki), together with other kk.wiki* projects, support the automatic converting system for those writing systems.
The Cyrillic-Latin conversion is bidirectional, and supports contributions in both scripts.
For Arabic scripts, only Cyrillic and/or Latin to Arabic one-way conversion is supported yet, and has no help on contribution, means that Chinese Kazakhs have to set Kazakh keyboards in either Cyrillic or Latin to contribute kkwiki.
The current version of the converter used in Kazakh Wikipedia is outdated (probably based on Kazniform version), the Transliteration.kpr.eu has developed some improved versions.
- Kazakh Cyrillic to Latin (new) converter as of 2018 Latin script
- Kazakh Cyrillic to Latin (old) or Arabic converter - before 2017, (download source codes)
Note that the Kazakh Latin scripts are, after the 2018 converter page launched, modified by the 2nd present of the Republic of Kazakhstan Tokayev and Baitursynov Institute of Linguistics:
Latin | Cyrillic A a | А а Ä ä | Ә ә B b | Б б Ç ç | Ч ч D d | Д д E e | Е е F f | Ф ф G g | Г г Ğ ğ | Ғ ғ H h | Х х H h | Һ һ İ i | І і I ı | И и I ı | Й й Y y | Ы ы J j | Ж ж K k | К к Q q | Қ қ L l | Л л M m | М м N n | Н н Ŋ ŋ | Ң ң O o | О о Ö ö | Ө ө P p | П п R r | Р р S s | С с Ş ş | Ш ш T t | Т т U u | Ұ ұ Ü ü | Ү ү V v | В в W w | У у Z z | З з
This modifiction should be accounted when updating the conversion system codes in the next time.
The Kurdish language use three writing system by region,
- the Latin alphabet is used in Turkey and Syria,
- the Arabic alphabet in Iraq and Iran, and
- the Cyrillic alphabet in exUSSR, but since it's nowadays unused anymore, this script system isn't imported here.
The Kurdish Wikipedia supports an auto-converting system for the two writing systems Latin/Arabic.
Inuktitut as spoken in Canada has two writing systems: the Inuktitut syllabics are used in parts of the territory of Nuvavut, while other regions use the Latin alphabet. An automatic conversion system between the two has been created (see iu:Wikipedia:Conversion script). However, because syllabics do not have uppercase letters, conversion from syllabics to Latin display only lowercase Latin letters.
The automatic conversion is enabled on the Inuktitut Wikipedia.
With Partial Automatic Conversion System
The Serbian language has two writing systems, Cyrillic (sr-Cyrl) and Latin (sr-Latn), with two major dialects. So there are in theory four variants in the language:
- Cyrillic alphabet Ekavian (sr-Cyrl-ekavsk)
- Latin alphabet Ekavian (sr-Latn-ekavsk)
- Cyrillic alphabet Ijekavian (sr-Cyrl-ijekavsk)
- Latin alphabet Ijekavian (sr-Latn-ijekavsk)
The Serbian Wikipedia supports an auto-converting system for the two writing systems, but not dialects since there are few difference between those.
Currently the variants' codes are wrong, "sr-ec" and "sr-el", they are waiting for patches to fix.
The Tajik language use three writing systems by region,
- Cyrillic alphabet in Tajikistan.
- Arabic alphabet in Afghanistan.
- Latin alphabet.
Tajik Wikipedia currently has an auto-converting system for two of the writing systems (Cyrillic - Latin) but not into Perso-Arabic.
See references for Cyrillic - Perso-Arabic converting system developement at http://tajpers.narod.ru/
The Uzbek language has three writing systems:
- Cyrillic and
- Arabic alphabet.
Uzbek Wikipedia currently has an auto-converting system for two of the writing systems (Latin - Cyrillic) but not into Perso-Arabic.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems are desirable since the Perso-Arabic script is used in Afghanistan. Converter into Arabic could be developed.
The Gan language has three major writing systems. These are simplified and traditional Gan Chinese, and Romanized Gan.
Gan Wikipedia currently has an auto-converting system for two writing systems (simplified and traditional Gan Chinese), but not into Romanized Gan. An automatic conversion into Romanized Gan would be desirable in order for non-Gan speakers to learn and comprehend the Gan language easier.
The Cantonese language can be written in either traditional or simplified scripts.
The Crimean Tatar language has three major writing systems. They are Latin, Cyrillic, and Arabic.
The Crimean Tatar Wikipedia mainly uses the Latin script, but the Cyrillic script has been used as the de facto official script in the Crimea since the region's annexation by Russia.
with major works to the MediaWiki core code base, the conversion between Latin and Cyrillic is developed to crhwiki and crh test Wiktionary projects.
We are still waiting volunteers on opinions about Crimean Tatar Arabic scripts, should there also have crh-arab conversion opinion? Let us know your opinion on talk page.
The Tachelhit language has two writing systems: Tifinagh and Latin, some materials also mentioned that Arabic scripts were used to describe, but they're even too old to be useful in this topic.
An automatic transliteration system from Tifinagh to Latin has been supported on the test wiki, however there's no reverse conversion system yet, see .
Existing Automatic Conversion System ready to be implemented
The Karakalpak language has two writing systems, Latin and Cyrillic.
Currently kaawiki is using the Latin script, and doesn't have a conversion system
There has a Karakalpak converter on Transliteration.kpr.eu, it supports conversion from Cyrillic to Latin, but the reverse conversion isn't working for now.
The Kyrgyz language has three major writing systems. These are Cyrillic Kyrgyz, Latinized Kyrgyz, and Perso-Arabic Kyrgyz (used in Xinjiang, China).
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems are desirable since the Kyrgyz in China do not use Cyrillic.
Arabic to Cyrillic converter is under developement (tentative source codes) so that Chinese Kyrgyz can also contribute to Wikipedia even without knowledge of Cyrillic.
The Uyghur language has three writing systems, Arabic, Latin and Cyrillic.
The Latin alphabet is used by Uyghurs in Turkey, Western countries and parts of Xinjiang, the Cyrillic alphabet is used in CIS countries whereas the Perso-Arabic script is used officially in Xinjiang.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems are desirable to prevent conflicts between users with different preferences. Actually that's existing: https://www.yulghun.com/imla/convert.html .
The Chechen language has 2 writing systems: Cyrillic and Latin alphabet.
An automatic conversion from Cyrillic into Latin writing systems are desirable since many Chechens living outside of the Russian Federation can not read Cyrillic.
Without Automatic Conversion System
Sorted according the similarity of the required conversion system.
Cyrillic - Latin converter
The Tatar language has three major writing systems. These are Cyrillic Tatar, Latinized Tatar, and Perso-Arabic Tatar.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems was very desirable in order to avoid Tatar script conflicts.
Bosnian language uses two writing systems: Latin and Cyrillic alphabet. Currently Bosnian Wikipedia uses Latin scripts, but no Cyrillic support.
A Cyrillic-Latin converter for Bosnian would be perfect.
Serbo-Croatian language uses two writing systems: Latin and Cyrillic alphabet.
It's currently unclear whether shwiki can and should have conversion systems.
The Romanian language can be written using either Latin script or Cyrillic script. Currently Romanian Wikipedia only use Latin script, as some users think Cyrillic Romanian should be marked as "Moldovan".
An automatic conversion between the two writing systems was considered as per Proposals for closing projects/Deletion of Moldovan Wikipedia 2. However, due to a number of large scale community conflicts of interests, the consideration is nowadays fall into a no-go zone, and unlikely to be touched again.
- A Cyrillic Romanian (or Moldovan, if you like) project is available on Wikia at wikia:mo.wpmo. StevenJ81 (talk) 23:38, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
Cyrillic - Latin - Arabic converter
Azerbaijani language has three writing system: Latin, Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic alphabet.
The Azerbaijani Wikipedia is written in the Latin script.
However due to the incompatibility of the Latin and Perso-Arabic scripts a South Azerbaijani Wikipedia was created in July 2015.
An automatic conversion between the Latin and Cyrillic scripts is desirable to make the wiki readable for Azerbaijanis living in Dagestan.
The Turkmen language has three writing systems: Latin (used in Turkmenistan), Perso-Arabic alphabet (used in Iran and Afghanistan) and Cyrillic (historically used in Turkmenistan).
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems is desirable because although officially, Turkmen is rendered in the Latin alphabet, the old Cyrillic alphabet is still in wide use and many political parties in opposition to the authoritarian rule of President Niyazov continued to use the Cyrillic alphabet on websites and publications, most likely to distance themselves from the alphabet that Niyazov created.
The Shughni language has three writing systems: Latin, Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic alphabet.
The Shughni Wikipedia is written in the Cyrillic, Latin and arabic scripts.
An automatic conversion at Wikimedia Incubator between the Latin and Cyrillic scripts is desirable to make the wiki readable for the 40,000 Shughni people in Tajikistan and 20,000 Shughni in Afghanistan. Transliteration to the Shughni arabic script can be made at a later date.
Latin - Arabic converter
Malay language is normally written using Latin alphabet called Rumi, although a modified Arabic script called Jawi script also exists. Rumi and Jawi are co-official in Brunei. Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use amongst Malays in Malaysia, and students taking Malay language examination in Malaysia have the option of answering questions using the Jawi script. The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.
An automatic conversion from Latin to Jawi script should be set up.
- Omniglot article about written Malay
- Rumi to Jawi
- Jawi writing for PC
- rumi-jawi transliteration software written using C#/WPF
Devanagari - Latin - Kannada
The Konkani language has five writing systems: Devanagari script, Latin script, Kannada script, Arabic script and Malayalam script. The Goan Konkani Wikipedia has articles in the Devanagari, Latin and Kannada scripts. Although there exists a project for a script converter, it hasn't been developed yet.
In the absence of an on-Wiki system, an external tool, Konkanverter is being used to manually transliterate text.
It needs to be investigated whether MediaWiki's LanguageConverter system can be used to implement the script conversion.
Indic-Arabic converter request
There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and is essentially the same as the Urdu script. In the Indian state of Punjab, Sikhs and others use the Gurmukhī script. Hindus, and those living in neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh sometimes use the Devanāgarī script. Shahmukhi and Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly ones used for writing Punjabi and are considered the official scripts of the language.
What about the set automatic Gurmukhī - Shahmukhi transliteration based on this source like in e.g. Kazakh wikipedia.
- Plz. set automatic Gurmukhī - Shahmukhi transliteration based on this source like in e.g. Kazakh wikipedia.
- Eastern Punjabi Wikipedia
- Western Punjabi Wikipedia
So every one can read these both wikis in Gurmukhī or Shahmukhi scripts .
The Kashmiri language has three major writing systems. These are Devanagari Kashmiri, Perso-Arabic Kashmiri and Romanized Kashmiri.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems is very desirable in order to avoid Kashmiri script conflicts. However, an accurate conversion script is very difficult to develop (see also http://desceco.org/O-COCOSDA2010/proceedings/paper_38.pdf )
The Sindhi language can be written using modified Persian alphabet and Devanagari script. Most Sindhi people youth in India do not know the Persian alphabet, and use Devanagari, leaving the current Wikipedia available solely for those in Pakistan.
A Sindhi Arabic to Devanagari Conversion tool can be created (based on this table and this table), tested and then installed on Sindhi Wikipdia in order for Sindhi articles to be read in the Devanagari script at the click of a tab. That also eliminates the need to have a separate wiki written in Sindhi Devanagari.
The Tamil language can also be written in Arwi (Tamil Arabic script). A Tamil to Arwi Conversion tool can be created, tested and then installed on Tamil Wikipdia in order for Tamil articles to be read in the Arabic script at the click of a tab. That also eliminates the need to have a separate wiki written in Arwi.
Chinese Character - Latin Convertor
Automatic Han to Latin conversion may be difficult but perhaps possible with reasonable accuracy. Completely automatic Latin to Han conversion is either impossible or extremely difficult and will almost certainly be inaccurate without knowledgeable human intervention (indeed, this is a similar problem to an input method for Han characters). Without the latter, only contribution in Han is possible. This would then disadvantage contributors who only know the Latin orthography.
The Hakka language has two major writing systems. These are Traditional Chinese characters, and Romanized Hakka(see existing chinese character --> Hakka dictionary).
Hakka Wikipedia currently does not have an auto-converting system for the two writing systems. An automatic conversion from Traditional Chinese characters into Romanized Hakka would be desirable to avoid conflicts between users with different preferences and enable users to comprehend the meaning of every word more easily.
- Recent Updates:
- The 4000 most used Han characters have been translated to Romanized Hakka.
- An application for the enabling of the translations has been made here and the task is awaiting to be assigned. --Hakka (talk) 13:33, 2 November 2013 (UTC)
Mindong Wikipedia currently does not have an auto-converting system for the two writing systems. An automatic conversion from Traditional Chinese characters into Romanized Foochowese would be desirable to avoid conflicts between users with different preferences and enable users to comprehend the meaning of every word more easily.
- Recent Updates:
- The 6,104 most used Han characters have been translated to Romanized Foochowese.
- --S205645 (talk) 12:45, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
An automatic conversion between the two writing systems from Romanized Minnan --> Traditional Minnan Chinese characters and from Traditional Minnan Chinese characters --> Romanized Minnan is both desirable in order to avoid existing conflicts between users with different script preferences.
Minnan Wikipedia (Latin–Latin)
Someone commented on a user page to raise the possibility of automatic conversion between the two leading Latin orthographies here. They are Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn (Tâi-lô). Each is strictly a function (in the mathematical sense) of the other. The conversion table is available. Something very simple on the level of the script conversion tool at ang: might just work. Incidentally, it might even serve as a rudimentary spellchecker if implemented properly. See also this thesis and this blog post.
Yoruba Wikipedia (Latin–Latin)
The Nigeria Yoruba and the Benin Yoruba orthographies are different. The Yoruba Wikipedia uses the Nigeria Yoruba spelling.
The Nigeria Yoruba orthography is based on Samuel Crowther’s 1852 orthography, which was influenced by the Church Missionary Society writing system. The Nigeria Yoruba orthography rules were standardized during 1875 Yoruba Orthography Conference. In 1966, the Western Nigeria Ministry of Education set up a committee to review the orthograpic rules and the Report of the Yoruba Orthography Committee was published in 1969 and following reactions, a larger committee published the Report of the Enlarged Committee on Yoruba Orthography in 1972. In 1971, the Joint Working Party was set-up to achieve practical reforms in multiple Nigerian languages, and the Yoruba Working Party accepted most of the recommendations of the Orthography Committees. In 1974, the Joint Consultative Committee on Education, set-up by the Federal Ministry of Education, approved that the recommendations of the Joint Working Party be used by all Ministries of Education in Nigeria and the West African Examinations Council.
The Benin Yoruba orthography is based on the Benin National Alphabet created by the National Linguistic Commission in 1975 and adopted in law the same year. The Benin National Alphabet defines several Benin language orthographies, including a Yoruba one. The national alphabet was updated a few times, including in 1990 and in 2006.
The main difference between the Nigeria Yoruba and the Benin Yoruba orthographies are as follow: ẹ ọ p ṣ in Nigeria are spelled ɛ ɔ kp sh in Benin.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems are desirable to prevent the creation of a Mongolian Wikipedia written in the Classical Mongolian script and the Latinized Mongolian script.
An automatic conversion between the two writing systems are necessary because the 'Kalmyks' (known as Oirats in China) use the Todo script only.
The Ladino language has major two major writing systems. These are Latinized Ladino, and Rashi script (variant of the Hebrew script).
An automatic conversion between the two writing systems are desirable to prevent the duplication of articles. However, this can meet a very hard-to-resolve technical challenge, see talk page for details.
The Vlax Romani has major two major writing systems. These are Latinized Romani, and Cyrillic Romani.
Considering to Introduce Multi-writing System in the near future
- Requests for new languages/Wikipedia Hanja,
[[incubator:Test-wp/ko-hanja]](now at wikia:kore)
- User:Yes0song/Automatic conversion in Korean language
- User:Masoris/Edit Page Suggestion for Automatic Conversion System
- ko:사용자:Yes0song/다지모 (Korean)
- ko:사용자:Yes0song/다지모/한자 혼용판 도입 (Korean)
- Wp/vi-nom no longer exists on Incubator. A substantially equivalent project exists at http://www.soccer-cjkv.com/hn/wi/index.php/%E5%BC%B5%E6%AD%A3. StevenJ81 (talk) 23:34, 21 February 2018 (UTC)
(1) There are two writing system: traditional w:Hanacaraka (also called Carakan, an Abugida script) and Latin. Latin is more prevalent to the extent of almost all publication in Javanese (albeit only in small number) are all in Latin. A one-to-one conversion is possible from Latin to Hanacaraka. Hanacaraka only recently (2009) got it's own Unicode, and there exist a Hanacaraka Unicode font and several non-Unicode fonts. Since the Unicode hasn't been supported by TrueType, it's using SIL's Graphite.
Currently Javanese Wikipedia already request WebFont to be implemented. In the future it is desirable to see automatic conversion like the Chinese or Cyrillic projects.
(2) Another thing to be considered: Javanese language has (at least) two registers (sets of vocabulary) based on social standing: polite/palace Javanese (krama) and brash/market Javanese (ngoko). Both are used in Central Java, the former is more commonly used in publication, while the latter are more commonly used in conversation. In some places the usage of the latter is also found in publication, mainly in Suriname (for example the ngoko language is used in Suriname-Javanese Bible, which to the eyes and ears of the Javanese people would be vulgar), where the former is no longer in use, due to historical and geographical reasons. The same also true for East Javanese people, who opposed vehemently the use of the former due to its association with aristocracy, and for people from other ethnicity all around Indonesia. Therefore there are four combinations/variants in Javanese language:
- Hanacaraka krama
- Latin krama
- Hanacaraka ngoko
- Latin ngoko
Converting from krama to ngoko sometimes only requires one-to-one mapping of vocabulary, but in other instances requires one-to-many or many-to-one, or even a change in the grammar.
(3) Historically, there's also third (and even fourth) script that was used to write Javanese, that is Arabic script (called Pegon alphabet and Arab gundul alphabet), and long before that, Sanskrit/Pallava (Old Javanese/Kawi script). http://www.omniglot.com/writing/javanese.htm
The use of these old scripts would in Wikimedia projects is still non-existent, but probably in the future would be beneficial for Wikisource and Javanese Wiktionary
The Laz language has two writing systems: Georgian script and Latin script. An automatic conversion into Georgian would be desirable to enable more Laz users from Georgia.
The alphabet is here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laz_grammar#Alphabet Georgian and Latin
- Yes, Laz live in Georgia, do not know the Latin alphabet as well. And in Turkey residing Laz do not know Georgian alphabet. Therefore, it is important to write Laz Wikipedia with two alphabets. so is made, for example, Serbian Wikipedia. I mean, this is not a big problem. Thanks! Dato deutschland 07:13, 11 March 2010 (UTC)
- Laz Georgian - Latin - Georgian converter - Both direction converter, easy to implement into Laz Wikipedia
The Brahui language has two main writing systems: Arabic script and the Latin script. This is because:
- The current online Arabic keyboard does not contain the required number of vowels for Brahui.
- Sometimes vowels are used as consonants depending upon their position in a word. This is quite confusing for people who are getting literacy instruction in the Brahui language.
A system that can convert between the two scripts would help resolve script issues from hindering the growth of the language.
1. The Manchu language is near extinction in terms of native speakers, however a lot of enthusiasts and academics are learning it as a second language. When they learn it, in China I believe they mainly use Manchu script and in the west they learn the language in both the latin and Manchu scripts.
2. A little snag we might run into is the fact that Manchu script is normally written vertically, from up to down. However, if need be, that rule can be bent and we can do it horizontally and people can manually rotate their screens if they wish to read it in Manchu script.
3. The Jurchen script is used for writing an earlier stage of Manchu, the Jurchen language. If it ever works out properly in unicode, we might create a separate Jurchen wikipedia like how we have separate modern and old English wikipedias.
The Talysh language has three writing systems: Latin, Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic.
An automatic conversion between the three writing systems can be developed. However, unlike Kazakh Wikipedia (maybe like Uzbek Wikipedia), the Talysh community decided to use Latin script first.
The Pahlawi language has three writing systems: Pahlavi scripts, Manichaean alphabet, Avestan alphabet. And now for facilitation, we used Latin alphabet.
- phab:T32759 - Tracking bug about this task
- Will be replaced by MediaWiki-Language-converter tag
- Confound it!—Supporting languages with multiple writing systems
More lists of Wikipedias by various criteria : [ edit ]
- List of Wikipedias by article count, users, file count and depth and its source (both updated daily)
- List of Wikipedias by edits per article and depth (both updated daily)
- List of Wikipedias by language group and family (both updated daily) and language families as a tree (not just Wikipedias)
- List of Wikipedias by country (updated manually)
- List of Wikipedias by speakers per article (updated daily)
- List of Wikipedias by sample of articles and expanded sample of articles (both updated monthly)
- List of Wikipedias by featured and good articles (both updated manually)
- List of Wikipedias by creation date (incomplete)
- List of Wikipedias in multiple writing systems
- List of Wikipedias having local media files and zero local media files (both updated manually)
- List of Wikipedia milestones or en:Wikipedia:Milestone statistics (tracking of major article-count milestones)
- List of largest wikis (not just Wikimedia wikis)
- Wikimedia News (announcements and tracking of milestones for all Wikimedia projects)