コミュニティの洞察/2018年報告書

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コミュニティ参加洞察2018年報告


この報告書の プレゼンテーションを視聴してください! 動画は英語版です。

アジア交流会に参加したウィキメディアンの皆さん(2018年ウィキマニア)

コミュニティ参加の洞察2018年: 学習補助によってウィキメディア・コミュニティの支持を高める

ウィキメディア財団が掲げた2017–2018年度の3つの戦略分野のひとつがコミュニティです。[1] この戦略分野は「プログラムや体験とリソースの改善と ボランティアの定着率と貢献を高める」ことを目標に据えています。年次計画の立案と承認は昨年度に行われ、以来、財団は目標達成に向けてさまざまなプログラムに取り組んできました。昨年度はコミュニティの健全性の大きな課題で引き続き重要です。リソースの面でWMFはウィキメディアのコミュニティをサポートし提供する目標に取り組み、中でもウィキメディアの新興コミュニティに注目しました。

財団の業務の成果を把握しようとしても、ウィキメディアのように社会と技術両面の運動である場合は容易ではありません。コミュニティ参加洞察は、財団の複数のチームが毎年、年度の目標に基づいて設問を設計するアンケート調査です。このアンケートはウィキメディアのコミュニティ像を描き、またウィキメディア財団の掲げる目標の達成に関わる情報を提示する助けになります。

このページでは2016–17年度に実施した回答者4千人超のアンケート調査の結果を集約し、年度目標に焦点を当てた170問の結果をまとめます。目標は複数のテーマにまたがります。

  • ウィキメディアのコミュニティにおける多様性とは
  • 健全度においてウィキメディアのコミュニティの現状は? その関連で、ウィキメディアのコミュニティは多様性を受け入れているでしょうか?
  • ウィキメディアのコミュニティを支えるWMFのプログラムには、どんな成果や紹介したいエピソードがありますか?

アンケート調査の実施の詳細は、調査の設計を扱ったsurvey designのページをご参照ください(英語)。

Contents

What progress has been made in the diversity of Wikimedia communities?

Diversity of contributors on the Wikimedia projects seems to remain unchanged.

  • Between 2017 and 2018, no statistically significant changes were found in gender for Wikimedia contributors. We detected a decrease in gender diversity in emerging communities, but we are not sure if this is due to a change in the sampling strategy. Last year, we sampled a specific group of contributors who in addition to editing in their home language, also edited in English Wikipedia. This year, we removed this group and this may have contributed to the representation in our sample. Some work is needed to learn what effect this sampling change had, if any.
  • The median age of all contributors is between 35 to 44 years and has slightly increased since 2017. While median is the preferred measure to describe age, we noticed an increase in the mean. Age was grouped into seven categories. The mean age across these seven categories increased from 3.97 in 2017 to 4.0 in 2018, which is closest to the 45–54 age category. [2]
  • 貢献者は圧倒的にグローバルな北の出身(81%)。 新興国の貢献者が減少したことと、統計戦略の変更が重なりました。そのため地域間の割合の変化が見られたと推察しますが、正確なところは次回、2019年4月のアンケート実施まで不明です。
  • 貢献者のうち、大学進学以上の学歴がある人の割合は高いです。 貢献者の85%はpost-secondary education訳注:高等教育)を修了しています。 CE(コミュニティ参加)洞察で教育程度を査定したのは本年度が初めてであり、例年と比較した推移はわかりません。

コミュニティの観衆層と多様性

  • ジェンダーについて。 2017年データと対照すると、プログラム主催者も提携団体主催者も、ウィキメディアの貢献者やボランティア開発者と比較して、女性の率が増えたと報告しました。 報告ではそれぞれ、プログラム主催者の36%、提携団体主催者の26%が女性とされています。女性のボランティア開発者は12%とされています。 去年と対照すると、今年のサンプル群ではプログラム主催者は10%増加、提携団体は2%減少と見られます。
  • 年齢: 観衆全体の平均年齢は変わらず35-44歳でした。 アジア・インド系諸語のウィキペディア[3] 、中東ならびにアフリカのウィキペディア,[4] 、さらにボランティア開発者は平均年齢が低めでした。これら集団の平均年齢は25-34歳です。. これら3つの観衆の回答者は、35歳未満がその70%以上を占めました。 英語版ならびに西ヨーロッパ諸語のウィキペディアでは[5] 平均年齢は高めです。しかしながら編集者では、英語版ウィキペディアの53%、西ヨーロッパ諸語のウィキペディア群の46%は35歳未満と自己申告しています。
  • 教育程度: 各コミュニティの観衆は、平均学歴が大学1年次終了でした。プログラム主催者ならびにウィキメディア提携組織の平均学歴はそれをやや上回り、およそ9割が大学1年次以上と自己申告しています。 中東とアフリカ地域のボランティア開発者と編集者[4] ならびにアジア・インド諸語ウィキペディア群[3] では他の集団より学歴が短いと申告しています。 どちらも大学1年次もしくはそれ以上の学歴を申告した人は7割未満でした。これら3集団は年齢順で最も若く、それが最終学歴に反映しているとも推察されます。
  • 地理的分布。 Our sampling strategy is stratified, which means that we specifically target certain projects and languages. Geographic representation, therefore, is heavily influenced by how we sample. As with the previous year, geographic representation among affiliates, program organizers and developers is higher than editors.[6]

What is the current health of Wikimedia communities? Related to community health, are Wikimedia communities inclusive?

Among measures of collaboration and engagement, community members' self-awareness and awareness of others remains lowest.

  • "Awareness of self and others" continues to have a lower average by far. "Awareness of self and others" includes statements about how contributors perceive other's emotional awareness (e.g. "Most Wikimedia contributors are aware of their biases and patterns of behavior."). Respondents either agreed or disagreed with these statements. The average for this question is about 3.05, which is considerably lower than the other measures of collaboration and engagement. Among program organizers, there was a 45% increase from 2.1 to 3.0 on a scale of 5 in awareness of self and others.
  • Changes across the measures for collaboration and engagement seem to be minimal from 2017. Changes seem to be slight, between 3 and 5%, across the survey questions these measures of community health.
  • For all audiences between 2017 and 2018, perceptions of Wikimedia Foundation leadership decreased the most. The wording for this survey question changed minimally. It had a higher percentage change than other constructs with wording changes. There was a 5.5% decrease in the average response between 2017 and 2018 which is statistically significant. For Wikimedia affiliates between 2017 and 2018, perceptions of the Wikimedia Foundation's leadership decreased 18%. Some Wikimedia affiliate organizers may have attended the Wikimedia Conference, which co-occurred with the survey, and this may have influenced results.
  • Among developers, there was 20% average increase from 2017 for all measures of collaboration and engagement. This change needs to be investigated further.
  • Dutch Wikipedia contributors surfaced several times in both the "Collaboration & Engagement" and "Diversity & Inclusion" constructs as being lower than several other Wikimedia projects. Dutch Wikipedia was lower in measurements of collaborative intent, awareness of self and others, feedback and recognition, individual commitment to diversity, and inclusive interactions. Each of these differences are statistically significant.

While diversity and inclusion measures are mixed, program organizers and affiliate organizers are showing stronger attitudes towards diversity.

  • Individual commitment to diversity and frequency of discrimination have favorable outcomes. Individual commitment to diversity is highest among the measures, while the frequency of discrimination is fairly low.
  • There is room for improvement in communities valuing diversity. The average response to "attitudes towards the importance of diversity" is 1.5 out of a scale from 0 to 4 (this question is formatted differently from the others). Compared with editors, program and affiliate organizers perceive that their communities place more value in diversity, about 2.5 out on a 0 to 4 scale.
  • Sentiments towards a sense of belonging and having an inclusive culture in the Wikimedia community were two of the lower scores among the diversity and inclusion measures. The scores for these constructs were 3.59 and 3.57, respectively. For measurements of an inclusive culture, the average response for women in the survey was 8% lower than men, which is statistically significant. Similar differences in gender were found among developers and low-activity editors.
  • Editors on the Wikimedia projects reported statistically significantly lower frequency of discrimination than developers, affiliates organizers and program organizers. The cause of this difference is unknown, so further investigation would be needed.

Experience of harassment has not declined since 2017 and appears to remain steady

  • Across Wikimedia audiences, an average of 22% felt unsafe or uncomfortable in any online or offline space in the last 12 months. In 2017, we asked the same question, but did not set a time limit of 12 months. So while it cannot be stated that harassment has decreased, we can say with some confidence that it has not worsened.
  • Among contributors to Wikimedia projects who reported feeling unsafe, 71% reported being bullied or harassed on Wikipedia in the last 12 months. Wikipedia was highest among the Wikimedia projects. The changes in bullying and harassment across the projects from 2017 were small. After Wikipedia, the incidence of harassment seems to decrease sharply. The second project with the highest reported frequency of bullying or harassment is Wikimedia Commons, where 21% reported being harassed followed by Meta-Wiki, where just 15% reported being harassed.
  • Although 54% of Wikimedians on the projects agree they are "freely able to express my thoughts without being attacked on Wikipedia", women reported statistically significant lower scores than men. The average response from female participants was 2.66 (between "Disagree" and "Neither Agree nor Disagree") and was significantly lower than males, who reported an average of 3.43 (between "Neither Agree nor Disagree" and "Agree").

What are some outcomes or stories about our programs supporting Wikimedia communities?

Wikimedia Foundation teams included questions related to their programs and goals. Some teams are interested in learning whether communities are aware of the support they provide, while others might be looking to learn the outcomes of their work on the people they support. The following are a few highlights from different teams.

AE = Low-activity editors, VAE = High-activity editors, DEV = Volunteer developers, PL = Program organizers, AFF = Affiliate organizers

Communications Department: Many contributors are not using any recognized channels for learning about the Foundation's work and women seem to use certain channels more than men

Among Wikimedia editors, 44.8% reported not using any channels for learning about features and services from the Wikimedia Foundation. From those who did report using one of the channels listed, Wikimedia project pages were endorsed the most. Wikimedia Affiliates reported a wider variety of channels for learning about updates from the Foundation. Besides Wikimedia projects, they reported using the blog, local conferences, and social media more than the other categories. Women seem to use channels differently than men. 68% of males and 80% of females reported using one channel or more to learn about Foundation updates. A higher proportion of men used Wikimedia projects pages. Women editors reported a higher use of mailing lists, social media, the Wikimedia Foundation blog, and conferences.

PR30 - Feature requests for Wikimedia Commons.png

Community Programs team: Wikimedia Commons users would like better support of multilingual descriptions of media files and be able to easily discover new or unexpected media files

The most often selected features for Wikimedia Commons, for both high- and low-activity editors, were wanting better support of multilingual descriptions of media files and wanting to easily discover new or unexpected media to illustrate other Wikimedia projects (PR30). Both were voted on about 25% of the time. Other options included better options to edit multimedia files, better options for collaborating with other projects like Wikimedia projects, and more refined ways to embed media from external websites.


Community Resources team: Local and regional events show more learning and building skills as major outcomes than larger global conferences, while Wikimania excels in discovery of the new

Participants shared which outcomes were most important from attending Wikimedia conferences, and certain events seemed to be better suited for certain outcomes:

Participant outcomes for Wikimedia conferences
  • Discovery of new projects and ideas is best at Wikimania: While all conferences had a high proportion of participants that reported discovering new projects or ideas as the most important outcome, Wikimania had the highest proportion of them all.
  • Getting work done at all types of events: Across all the types of events, it appears that a high proportion of participants reported that they were able to start or improve a project because they attended the conference.
  • Resolving conflict at Wikimedia Conference and national or local conferences: The annual Wikimedia Conference and other national or local conferences seemed have more reports of this kind of activity.
  • Learning at thematic and national or local conferences: Participants who attended thematic events had a higher proportion who selected learning or improving a new skill as the most important result, which was followed by national or local conferences and regional events.
  • Feeling recognized is less frequent at conferences: Across the different outcomes, it appears that feeling recognized or appreciated seemed to be on the lower end.

Learning & Evaluation team: Continuing to see an upward trend in evaluation capacity among program organizers & affiliate organizers

LE08: Measurement of evaluation activities

In general, preparedness for evaluation among organizers has grown since 2017 (LE07). Between 2014 and 2016, the Evaluation Pulse survey only reached program organizers who had been in contact with the Foundation through various programs. CE洞察については観衆が広がり、財団の能力開発プログラムの参加経験の有無は不明ですがプログラム主催者が増えました。2014年から2016年にわたり、プログラム経営および評価能力の自己申告は増加しています(図の緑の棒)。観衆の変化を受け、2017年から2018年は増加しました(図の青の棒)。

Results show that the team's strategy of capacity building through online resources, tools, and leveraging peer networks is on track. The data show that there is increase of use Program & Events Dashboard, that organizers gain skills through in-person trainings, and that program organizers mostly go to friends or to Meta-Wiki for support. This data is in line with the team's work on the Wikimedia Resource Center, learning workshops at conferences, and curating online resources for learning.

Legal team: Communities seem to be mixed about content policies related to Biographies of Living Persons and Paid Editing

Attitudes towards Biographies of Living Persons
Opinions about Foundation support to policies

From a sample of community members, results show that opinions are mixed as to whether the Foundation "should be doing more to curb paid editing on Wikipedia." From this sample of 184 editors, 52% agreed with the statement, while 32% selected "neither agree nor disagree" and 16% disagreed. No significant differences were detected among editors with different activity levels.

Wikipedia editors who participated in this survey are divided about whether a person's information should be removed from Wikipedia when that information is considered private in the person's country of residence. Wikipedia articles sometimes have information about living persons that is legally allowed on Wikipedia, but that would be considered private information where the article subject lives. Wikipedia editors were asked whether private information should be removed when this situation happens. The results are also mixed. From 516 editors, about a third agree, a third disagree, and a third selected "I don't know."

Partnerships & Global Reach team: Focus on emerging communities shows through awareness of partnerships support.

Awareness of services provided by partnerships team

The majority of affiliate organizers (61%) were unaware of the Partnerships and Global Reach team. 74% affiliate organizers reported being unaware that the Global Reach and Partnerships team could help support the creation of partnerships.

Emerging countries reported being more aware (59%) of the Partnerships and Global Reach team than program organizers from Global North countries (41%). We asked all organizers whether they were aware that the team is available to help with partnerships. Only 26% of all organizers reported being aware of this support resource. More organizers from emerging communities reporting being aware of this support (41%) than organizers from emerging communities (19%).

Technical Collaboration team: Contributors prefer giving feedback about new software features on the wikis, and Tech News is by far the preferred way to get technical news

Tech News is most preferred for receiving updates and news about Foundation software development.

ウィキメディア財団ソフトウェア開発の更新情報とニュース配信について、編集者は技術ニュースを高く支持しています。 For high-activity editors, Wikimedia community pages such as local village pumps and Wikimedia news sites like the Signpost or the Kurier were also highly selected. Wikimedia mailing lists and Wikimedia Foundation products seem to be the third group of preferred sites among high-activity editors. 活動量が低い編集者やSNSでは、技術ニュースに次いで財団公式ブログとコミュニティページの閲覧が上位でした。CE洞察アンケートを精査したところ、2017年分と2018年分で特記すべき変化はありません。


Conclusions and next steps

  • There is room for improvement in diversity of the movement, as well as in improving specific aspects of both collaboration and engagement and diversity and inclusion, which are essential for achieving knowledge equity, one of the areas of focus in the 2030 strategic direction. The focus of the strategic direction is to be the essential infrastructure for free knowledge in the world. There are two branches to this direction, and one is knowledge equity. This direction demands that we examine how well we are working to "break down the social, political, and technical barriers preventing people from accessing and contributing to free knowledge."[7] Being a diverse, inclusive community that is welcoming to all is essential to reach this goal. Awareness of self and others, a sense of belonging, and attitudes towards valuing diversity could be improved to reach this aim.
  • Eleven teams at the Foundation are working to decide how they will use their data. Some teams have already published their next steps on their report pages. Currently, teams continue to explore the results and making decisions on how to use the results. In every report, teams are reporting their most useful findings as well as how they intend to use the results.
  • Continue to improve the survey experience, in order improve response and completion rates. The response rates this year improved for contributors, but more work needs to be done to improve the experience for users. We aim to shorten the survey as well as to conduct user testing to improve the experience for contributors. This survey will be used to measure aspects of the Community Engagement Department's strategy.

注記

  1. 財団の2017–2018年年次計画を参照
  2. 貢献者の統計には年齢の要素を加算済み。
  3. a b この集団とは日本語と中国語に加え、その他全てのアジア・インド地域のサンプル群を含む。
  4. a b この集団にはアラビア語とその他の中東地域とアフリカ地域の諸語のサンプル群を含む。
  5. この集団にはイタリア、フランス、オランダその他の西ヨーロッパ諸語を含む。ただしスペイン語とポルトガル語は除外、これらコミュニティは中南米とヨーロッパに分割されるため。
  6. The data presented for this particular question is unweighted because the data would be divided quite small into several regions.
  7. https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Strategy/Wikimedia_movement/2017/Direction#Our_strategic_direction:_Service_and_Equity