特殊语言代码

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This page is a translated version of the page Special language codes and the translation is 95% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.
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维基媒体wiki的语言可以在每个页面的<html>元素的lang="..."xml:lang="..."属性中找到(或多语言页面中特定子内容的其他元素);它们还用于CSS语言选择器中的样式。这些语言代码通常应该是BCP 47定义的规范语言标记。

在大多数情况下,我们用于项目的子域名对应于语言代码,但仍有一些例外。这通常是出于历史原因,其中有效的ISO 639代码(或已注册和未弃用的BCP 47变体代码)在创建项目时仍然不可用,但也因为某些以前的ISO 639代码已被弃用或删除,因为它们包含了一组现在被认为是不同的语言。

弃用或删除的ISO 639代码在BCP 47中仍然有效(通常不会删除现有代码),这些代码通常可能是缺失翻译的后备或允许向上兼容,即使它们不再被推荐用于现代使用和新创建的内容(使用这些代码可能会在维基媒体中产生无法解决的争议,除非使用较新的代码区分不同的翻译)。在某些情况下,ISO 639中的一些早期区别也已被删除,因为它们是人为地临时引入的(有时是出于非中立的政治原因)但没有得到用户的良好支持,并且当它们不必要地使翻译人员的任务复杂化时,或者当他们经常需要使用语言后备或自动音译时(当不同脚本变体的大多数用户之间采用可靠的标准和拼写惯例时),或者因为教育的发展以便更好地相互理解和接受本地使用的多种变体。

不匹配它們的lang属性的子域名

子域名 语言 项目 注释
als Local name: Alemannisch
English name: Alemannic
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikibooks, Wikiquote 使用gsw,它匹配语言的ISO 639-3代码。
be-x-old Local name: беларуская (тарашкевіца)
English name: Belarusian (Taraškievica)
Language familySlavic
Wikipedia 使用IETF语言标签be-tarask
bh Local name: भोजपुरी
English name: Bihari
Language familyIndo-Aryan
Wikipedia 模糊的遗留代码。使用bho,它与该语言的ISO 639-3代码相匹配。
crh Local name: qırımtatarca
English name: Crimean Tatar
Language familyTurkic
Wikipedia 网站代码正确,然而其使用拉丁字母变体crh-Latn作为默认语言代码。
roa-rup Local name: armãneashti
English name: Aromanian
Language familyItalic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary 使用rup,它匹配语言的ISO 639-3代码。
simple Local name: Simple English
English name: Simple English
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary 使用普通英语的en
zh-classical Local name: 文言
English name: Classical Chinese
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia 文言文有ISO 639-3代码lzh
zh-min-nan Local name: Bân-lâm-gú
English name: Minnan
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikibooks, Wikiquote, Wikisource 闽南语有ISO 639-3代码nan
zh-yue Local name: 粵語
English name: Cantonese
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia 粤文有ISO 639-3代码yue

杂项:

  • 所有wikimedia.org的子域名

不符合有效的ISO 639语言代码的子域名

子域名 语言 项目 注释
als Local name: Alemannisch
English name: Alemannic
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikibooks, Wikiquote 阿勒曼尼语有ISO 639-3代码gsw。ISO 639-3代码als被另外分配给Tosk Albanian(参见phab:T25215)。
bat-smg Local name: žemaitėška
English name: Samogitian
Language familyBaltic
Wikipedia 萨莫吉提亚语有ISO 639代码sgs(参见phab:T27522)。
cbk-zam Local name: Chavacano de Zamboanga
English name: Chavacano de Zamboanga
Language familyPidgin and Creole
Wikipedia 作为单个语言,Chavacano de Zamboanga没有ISO 639代码。ISO 639-3代码cbk被分配给查瓦卡诺语,这是Chavacano de Zamboanga的超集。(参见phab:T124657
eml Local name: emiliàn e rumagnòl
English name: Emilian-Romagnol
Language familyItalic
Wikipedia 用于艾米利亚-罗马涅语的ISO 639-3代码eml现已停用,并拆分为egl(艾米利亚语)和rgn(罗马涅语)。然而eml仍将永久作为有效的BCP 47语言标签(参见phab:T36217)。
fiu-vro Local name: võro
English name: Võro
Language familyFinno-Permic
Wikipedia 佛罗语有ISO 639-3代码vro(参见phab:T31186)。
iu Local name: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut
English name: Inuktitut
Language familyEskimo-Aleut
Wikipedia ISO 639认为iu/iku不是單個语言,而是包括ikeikt的大语言。MediaWiki同意这一点(參見phabricator),但语言备选设定至ike,叫做ike-cans;添加了ike-latn;没有ikt支持。CLDR认为Cans是正确字母。
ksh Local name: Ripoarisch
English name: Ripuarian
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia ISO 639-3代码ksh被分配给科隆语,这是利普里安语的子集。
map-bms Local name: Basa Banyumasan
English name: Banyumasan
Language familySunda-Sulawesi
Wikipedia 作为单个语言,Banyumasan没有ISO 639代码。ISO 639-1代码jv/jav被分配给爪哇语,这是Banyumasan的超集。
nds-nl Local name: Nedersaksies
English name: Dutch Low Saxon
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia 低地德语nds重复。
nrm Local name: Nouormand
English name: Norman
Language familyItalic
Wikipedia 作为单个语言,诺曼语没有ISO 639代码(然而诺曼语的两种方言——Guernésiais和Jèrriais则分享ISO 639-3代码nrf)。ISO 639-3代码nrm被另外分配给Narom语。ISO 639-3将诺曼语与法语结合在一起,就好像各种北部的法语方言一样(参见phab:T25216)。
roa-rup Local name: armãneashti
English name: Aromanian
Language familyItalic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary 阿罗马尼亚语有ISO 639-3代码rup(参见phab:T17988)。
roa-tara Local name: tarandíne
English name: Tarantino
Language familyItalic
Wikipedia 作为单个语言,塔伦蒂诺语没有ISO 639代码。ISO 639-3将其与意大利语结合在一起,就好像各种北部的意大利语方言一样。
sh Local name: srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
English name: Serbo-Croatian
Language familySlavic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary sh原本是塞尔维亚-克罗地亚语的ISO 639-1代码,但它已不再活跃。然而它仍然是有效的BCP 47语言标签。塞尔维亚-克罗地亚语有ISO 639-3代码hbs。在CLDR别名中,sh映射到sr-Latn(参见phab:T127679phab:T127680)。
simple Local name: Simple English
English name: Simple English
Language familyGermanic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary

简单英语没有ISO 639代码,但拥有IETF子标签simple。(参见phab:T110190


However, even if the simple code is valid as a standard subtag for BCP 47, because it is only registered as a generic subtag for language variants for various base languages like en-simple or fr-simple (using the now standard variant subtag is preferable to using multiple subtags including an unregistered private extension, like "en-x-simple"). As a plain tag, "simple" means nothing in BCP 47 or ISO 639 (as it is not a plain language).
Note that under ISO 639 rules, Simple English is a variant or dialect or special orthography of English (so it can be registered as a variant subtag of English, like "formal" or informal" used in German or Dutch), defined as a subset for some limited usage. The IANA database for IETF's BCP 47 already indicates this and BCP 47-aware applications should have no problem to identify the language as being part of normal English, as long as it is properly tagged as "en-simple" and not just "simple". Also the content of the Simple English Wipedia is hard to assess if it is really in "Simple" Englosh or just normal English, as there's NO standard for such "simplication" but only an editorial community decision which is not really enforceable, except for some presentation rules. For example, there does not exist any "Simple English" dictionary, and all "Simple English" users refer to normal English dictionaries. Simple English is only a stylistic decision made by different authors with different preferences or perception of what is "simple" enough for them individually; in fact, even the "Simple English" Wikipedia could be fully integrated within normal English Wikipedia by better classification of its content or by using decicated portals for some public with limited understanding of English, and by making sure the English Wikipedia does not enter into too much complex details without separating them into subpages or detailed sections: it should be possible to describe any topic in simpler terms before using more complex terms that would first be defined, using didactic/pedagogical rules for sorting this content. And there are different view about how to simplify English, depending on the audience (for youth? for non-native speakers? for disabled people? for some specific country? Are simplifications the same in US, Canada, UK, Australia, South Africa or India?).
zh-classical Local name: 文言
English name: Classical Chinese
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia 文言文有ISO 639-3代码lzh(参见phab:T10217phab:T30443)。
zh-min-nan Local name: Bân-lâm-gú
English name: Minnan
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikibooks, Wikiquote, Wikisource 闽南语有ISO 639-3代码nan(参见phab:T10217phab:T30442)。
zh-yue Local name: 粵語
English name: Cantonese
Language familySinitic
Wikipedia 粤文有ISO 639-3代码yue(参见phab:T10217phab:T30441)。

杂项:

  • tokipona:已解散的维基百科子域名
  • ru-sib:已故的维基百科子域名,以虚构的“西伯利亚”语言骗局
  • be-x-old:已修复并重定向到be-tarask维基百科子域(请参阅phab:T11823

其他區別

子域名 语言 项目 注释
ak Local name: Akan
English name: Akan
Language familyNiger-Congo
Wikipedia;
已关闭: Wikibooks, Wiktionary
这两个維基集合是同一种语言么?见维基百科条目。
Note that this situation is quite similar to the artificial distinction between Luxembourgish and Moselle Franconian, or between Serbian, Croation and Bosnian: they are also clusters of dialects of the same mutually intelligible base language with just minor differences (for terminology choice or their preferred orthography, but multiple orthographies exist for all these dialects). It's hard (and in fact impossible) to make a real distinction at linguistic level, this is purely an ethnopolitical distinction and native speakers in one region going to the other region where the other dialect cluster is refered by a different name will be known there to use the other cluster name and will speak/write without more problems than in their origin ethopolitical community. This adaptation also occurs within each cluster, based on social interaction or level of formality (e.g. in religion, or for prestige, or for vernacular speech and jargons in the street or used by younger or less educated people).
tw Local name: Twi
English name: Twi
Language familyNiger-Congo
Wikipedia;
已关闭: Wiktionary
de-formal Local name: Deutsch
English name: German
Language familyGermanic
不用作主机名,但作为伪变体子标签(未注册)包含在translatewiki.net中的某些翻译中(在Meta-Wiki中用于根据他们的偏好直接引用wiki用户时的策略等页面):我们应该使用私有使用扩展
nl-informal Local name: Nederlands
English name: Dutch
Language familyGermanic

参见