Warunki korzystania/Poprawka dotycząca odpłatnych edycji

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Information

Today we are officially closing this comment period under Section 16 of the Terms of Use. We want to thank you for investing your time and best efforts in participating. With over 6.3 million views of the proposal, and almost 5,000 edits in the discussion — with more than 2,000 editors and 320,000 words in various languages? — this unprecedented exchange has shown how important the handling of paid contributions is to the community. It has also been useful in airing the various, often differing, points of view on this complex issue. We are convinced that the Board will appreciate this comprehensive review of the subject.

Everyone knew that addressing paid contributions effectively would be a tough issue with legitimate competing considerations. There is a loudly voiced desire by many editors and readers for paid editing disclosures, aiming for transparent and unbiased contributions to Wikimedia projects. On the other hand, others are concerned about privacy, enforcement, harassment, evaluation of the “edit, not the editor,” among other things. For us, this consultation was an excellent exchange where we had the opportunity to learn more and understand better the various positions and their implications.

As a next step, the Board will review the community comments. There has been a significant amount of discussion on this proposed amendment, so we expect that, with staff, the Board may take some time to review, discuss among themselves, and reach a decision on the next steps. The !vote is one strong indicator of the importance of addressing this topic, but we have no doubt that the Board will also look at the strength of the arguments and competing considerations, as well as their own experiences, in evaluating how we handle the disclosure of paid editing. In deciding the best approach forward, we anticipate that the Board will examine the need for and language and implications of the original and alternative optional proposals as well as other community proposals.

Thanks again for everyone’s detailed review and thoughtful insight in this discussion. We will keep you informed on the process and the Board’s deliberations.

Stephen LaPorte (WMF) (talk) 06:07, 25 March 2014 (UTC)

Contents

Zmiana WU: Ujawnianie odpłatnych edycji

Wprowadzenie

Dział prawny Fundacji Wikimedia zamierza poprosić Radę Powierniczą Fundacji Wikimedia o rozważenie wprowadzenia zmiany w naszych Warunkach Użytkowania, która ma w szerszym zakresie zaadresować kwestię niejawnych odpłatnych edycji treści. Wnoszenie wkładu w projekty Fundacji Wikimedia, służąc interesom płacącego klienta, a jednocześnie ukrywając, że treści były dodawane odpłatnie, doprowadziło do sytuacji, które nasza społeczność uważa za problematyczne. Wielu uważa, że użytkownicy, których może dotyczyć potencjalny konflikt interesów, powinni angażować się w przejrzystą współpracę, która to wymaga uczciwego ujawnienia, że treści zostały dodane odpłatnie. Wnoszenie wkładu w projekty Fundacji Wikimedia bez ujawniania tej odpłatności lub zatrudnienia może prowadzić do konsekwencji prawnych. Nasze Warunki użytkowania już w dotychczasowym brzmieniu zakazują prowadzenia nieuczciwych działań, w tym wprowadzania w błąd odnośnie do reprezentacji (pełnomocnictwa), podszywania się oraz oszustwa. W celu zapewnienia zgodności z tymi regulacjami poprawka ta określa minimalne wymagania odnośnie ujawniania informacji dotyczących odpłatnego dodawania treści w projektach Wikimedia.

Zgodnie z wymogami pkt. 16 Warunków użytkowania, oczekujemy na komentarze dotyczące tej proponowanej zmiany przez 30 dni przed przekazaniem ostatecznej wersji Radzie Powierniczej. Dostępne są również tłumaczenia w języku angielskim, niemieckim, francuskim, hiszpańskim, włoskim i innych; zachęcamy społeczność do tłumaczenia i dyskutowania proponowanej poprawki również w innych językach.

Proponowana zmiana

Dodanie podrozdziału na końcu Sekcji 4 Warunków Użytkowania, czyli „Powstrzymanie się od pewnych działań.

Nieujawnione odpłatne edycje treści

These Terms of Use prohibit engaging in deceptive activities, including misrepresentation of affiliation, impersonation, and fraud. To ensure compliance with these obligations, you must disclose your employer, client, and affiliation with respect to any contribution to any Wikimedia Projects for which you receive, or expect to receive, compensation. You must make that disclosure in at least one of the following ways:

  • informacja na swojej stronie użytkownika,
  • informacja na stronie dyskusji towarzysząca każdej odpłatnej edycji lub
  • informacja w opisie zmian towarzysząca każdej odpłatnej edycji.

Applicable law, or community and Foundation policies and guidelines, such as those addressing conflicts of interest, may further limit paid contributions or require more detailed disclosure. For more information, please read our background note on disclosure of paid contributions.

Zmiany opcjonalne

In response to community comment in the ongoing consultation, the WMF’s LCA team suggests three potential changes to the proposal. These changes would modify the second sentence of the first paragraph of the amendment, as described below. These options are not mutually exclusive – both of them, either, or neither could be adopted by the Board, depending on your input (and depending on whether they adopt the amendment as a whole).

These potential changes aim to address concerns that have been raised regarding reaction against editors who are allegedly in violation of these requirements, and concern about protecting good-faith contributors (e.g., professors, students, or Wikipedians in Residence) from unintentionally violating the disclosure requirement. We think that either or both of the three options could better focus the amendment on paid advocacy editing, which is a chief concern. However, we also realize they could raise other considerations. Your feedback on these options will help the Board as it considers what language to adopt.

This consultation has been informative, positive, and constructive. We appreciate this, and look forward to your comments on these options.

Opis zmian

Dotychczasowe sformułowanie Opcja 1 Opcja 2 Opcja 3
To ensure compliance with these obligations, you must disclose your employer, client, and affiliation with respect to any contribution to any Wikimedia projects for which you receive compensation. As part of these obligations, if you receive financial compensation for any contribution about an organization, living person, or commercial product, you must disclose the employer and client who compensated you. As part of these obligations, if you receive financial compensation for any contribution, you must disclose that you were compensated. [Add the following paragraph]

...

A Wikimedia Project community may adopt an alternative paid contribution disclosure policy. If a Project adopts an alternative disclosure policy, you may comply with that policy instead of the requirements in this section when contributing to that Project. An alternative paid contribution policy will only supersede these requirements if it is approved by the relevant Project community and listed in the alternative disclosure policy page [index to be created]


Opcja nr 1: Dodatkowo "o organizacji, żyjącej osobie lub produkcie komercyjnym" opisujących charakter edycji.

This option narrows what kinds of contributions these requirements would apply to. This focuses on topics that are potential subjects of advertisement and promotion, and excludes other topics of general interest. The intent is to try to exclude potential application to professors, teachers, and Wikipedians in Residence, and other individuals editing on topics of less commercial interest.

Please discuss this option on the talk page.

Opcja nr 2: Ogranicza zakres ujawniania, zmienia z „twojego pracodawcę, klienta lub powiązanie” na „że otrzymałeś wynagrodzenie”

This option focuses on simply the fact that compensation was involved, rather than specific information about the editor’s identity. The intent is to allow editors to identify and review paid edits without requiring editors to disclose specific information about their identity. Individual projects may supplement this rule, and create guidelines for additional disclosures, depending on the circumstances.

Please discuss this option on the talk page.

Opcja nr 3: Zezwolenie projektom na opracowywanie alternatywnych zasad ujawniania

This option focuses on providing local projects with an opportunity to create an alternative disclosure policy for paid contributions, to supersede the default disclosure policy provided in this section of the Terms of Use. The intent is to allow projects to prepare variations on how they expect disclosure, depending on the project and community’s needs, similar to how fair use is handled under the licensing policy. Projects may also supplement this rule and create guidelines for disclosure.

Please discuss this option on the talk page.

Wspólne zmiany dla obydwu opcji

In addition to the options above, we plan to make three other small changes:

  • Change the words “To ensure compliance with” to “As part of these”, and reorder the sentence.
  • Remove the words “to any Wikimedia projects”
  • Add the word “financial” to describe compensation.

The first two changes aim to improve clarity. The last change (the addition of the word “financial” to describe compensation) narrows what this would apply to, which we think will reduce confusion about the definition of compensation. (People had asked, for example, if this applied to things like students receiving a grade in class, or first-time editors receiving a free lunch during an editathon, neither of which we originally intended to be included.)

Często zadawane pytania dotyczące ujawniania odpłatnych edycji

Dlaczego ten wymóg ujawniania jest potrzebny?

Wnoszenie wkładu do projektów Fundacji Wikimedia służąc interesom płacącego klienta, a jednocześnie ukrywając, że treści były dodawane odpłatnie, doprowadziło do sytuacji, które nasza społeczność uważa za problematyczne. Wielu uważa, że użytkownicy, których może dotyczyć potencjalny konflikt interesów, powinni angażować się w przejrzystą współpracę, która to wymaga uczciwego ujawnienia, że treści zostały dodane odpłatnie. Wnoszenie wkładu do Projektów Fundacji Wikimedia bez ujawniania tej odpłatności lub zatrudnienia może prowadzić do konsekwencji prawnych. Nasze warunki użytkowania już w dotychczasowym brzmieniu zakazują prowadzenia nieuczciwych działań, w tym wprowadzenia w błąd odnośnie przynależności, podszywania oraz oszustwa. W celu zapewnienia zgodności z tymi regulacjami, poprawka ta określa minimalne wymagania odnośnie ujawniania informacji dotyczących odpłatnego dodawania treści w Projektach Wikimedia.

Jakie są „obowiązujące regulacje prawne” dotyczące odpłatnych edycji w Wikipedii? Czy nieujawnione odpłatne edycje są potencjalnie nielegalne?

Depending on the circumstances, undisclosed paid editing could subject you, your business or your clients to legal liability. Specific laws could apply to you, your business, or your clients, such as unfair competition and simple fraud statutes. In addition to the requirements of the Terms of Use, you must comply with those laws in your disclosure and execution of paid contributions.

We cannot advise you about specific legal requirements, and you should employ your own lawyer if you have questions. That said, as general background, deceptive business practices, including concealment of a professional affiliation in specific cases, are prohibited in multiple jurisdictions. In the United States, for example, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has the nationwide authority to regulate unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerce.[1] As the FTC illustrated in the below example, those failing to disclose a regulated company’s affiliation online may be subject to liability:

An online message board designated for discussions of new music download technology is frequented by MP3 player enthusiasts. They exchange information about new products, utilities, and the functionality of numerous playback devices. Unbeknownst to the message board community, an employee of a leading playback device manufacturer has been posting messages on the discussion board promoting the manufacturer’s product. Knowledge of this poster’s employment likely would affect the weight or credibility of her endorsement. Therefore, the poster should clearly and conspicuously disclose her relationship to the manufacturer to members and readers of the message board. [2]

The FTC’s guide Dot Com Disclosures specifies that “disclosures must be communicated effectively so that consumers are likely to notice and understand them in connection with the representations that the disclosures modify.” For state law implications, see, e.g., N.Y. Attorney General’s 2013 investigation regarding companies engaging in astroturfing. [3]

Laws applicable outside the US may also prohibit non-disclosure of paid contributions. The EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (and the corresponding national versions) ban the practice of “[u]sing editorial content in the media to promote a product where a trader has paid for the promotion without making that clear in the content or by images or sounds clearly identifiable by the consumer” and “[f]alsely claiming or creating the impression that the trader is not acting for purposes relating to his trade, business, craft or profession, or falsely representing oneself as a consumer.” [4] National legislation of EU member states may further restrict undisclosed paid contributions, such as through local competition laws, and, for similar reasons, local national courts may find violations in failing to disclose one’s affiliation on Wikipedia in the proper way.

Czy istnieją inne możliwe negatywne efekty odpłatnych edycji?

There is an extreme likelihood that contributions which are paid for, but intentionally not disclosed as such, do not serve the public interest in a fair and beneficial manner. When considering the value of the contribution of content to the public on balance with the value of dissemination of the content, there is at least an implied conflict of interest that the balance will tend to serve the more private interests of the paid contributor. If it is accepted that this is the case more often than not, it is hard to imagine the expected outcome as a net positive for Wikipedia.

As repeated real life examples illustrate, undisclosed paid editing can have the unintended effect of causing negative public relations issues for companies, clients, and individuals. The press follows such stories closely. Failing to include a disclosure with a paid contribution may lead to a loss of trust with the broader public as well as the Wikimedia community. To maintain goodwill and to avoid misunderstandings, transparency and friendly cooperation is the best policy for those being compensated for Wikimedia contributions.

To avoid embarrassment, be sure to follow local policies regarding paid contributions, such as Wikipedia:Conflict of interest for the English Wikipedia.

Jak będzie funkcjonować egzekwowanie przez społeczność tych wymogów w kontekście obowiązujących regulacji dotyczących prywatności i zasad postępowania?

Like the rules around sockpuppeting and sockpuppet investigations, this disclosure requirement is intended to work with existing policies and practices, so that there is a fair balance between identifying paid contributions and protecting good-faith editors. These policies include the cross-project value of civility, which is a pillar of Wikipedia; relevant project policies, like ENWP:OUTING or ESWP:ACOSO; and the Terms of Use, which prohibit stalking and abuse. (In cases of more extreme behaviors, local law may also apply.)

Like the rules around sockpuppeting and sockpuppet investigations, this disclosure requirement is intended to work with existing policies and practices, so that there is a fair balance between identifying paid contributions and protecting good-faith editors. These policies include the cross-project value of civility, which is a pillar of Wikipedia; relevant project policies, like ENWP:OUTING or ESWP:ACOSO; and the Terms of Use, which prohibit stalking and abuse. (In cases of more extreme behaviors, local law may also apply.)

This requirement, like others, should be applied constructively to enable collaboration and improve our projects. Users who violate them should first be warned and informed about these rules, and then only blocked if necessary. In other words: assume good faith and don’t bite the newcomers.

If an editor wishes to avoid the disclosure requirement of this amendment, they should abstain from receiving compensation for their edits.

Na ile wymóg ten będzie dotyczył nauczycieli, wykładowców uczelni i pracowników galerii, bibliotek, archiwów i muzeów (“GLAM”)?

The intent of these requirements is not to discourage teachers, professors, or those working at galleries, libraries, archives, and museums ("GLAM") institutions from making contributions in good faith. Disclosure is only required when contributors are compensated by their employer or client specifically for edits and uploads to a Wikimedia project. For example, if a professor at University X is paid directly by University X to write about that university on Wikipedia, the professor needs to disclose that the contribution is compensated. There is a direct quid pro quo exchange: money for edits. If that professor is simply paid a salary for teaching and conducting research, and is only encouraged by her university to contribute to projects about topics of general interest without more specific instruction, that professor does not need to disclose her affiliation with the university.

The intent of these requirements is not to discourage teachers, professors, or those working at galleries, libraries, archives, and museums (“GLAM”) institutions from making contributions in good faith. Disclosure is only required when contributors are compensated by their employer or client specifically for edits and uploads to a Wikimedia project. For example, if a professor at University X is paid directly by University X to write about that university on Wikipedia, the professor needs to disclose that the contribution is compensated. There is a direct quid pro quo exchange: money for edits. If that professor is simply paid a salary for teaching and conducting research, and is only encouraged by her university to contribute to projects about topics of general interest without more specific instruction, that professor does not need to disclose her affiliation with the university.

The same is true with GLAM employees. Disclosure is only necessary where compensation has been promised or received in exchange for a particular contribution. A museum employee who is contributing to projects about topics of his general interest without more specific instruction from the museum need not disclose his affiliation with the museum. At the same time, when required, a simple disclosure that one is a paid Wikipedian in Residence with a particular museum, for example, would be sufficient disclosure for purposes of the proposed amendment.

Co rozumiemy pod pojęciem „wynagrodzenie”?

As used in this provision, “compensation” means an exchange of money, goods, or services.

Co oznaczają określenia „pracodawca, klient i powiązanie”?

This means the person or organization that is paying you compensation — money, goods, or services — with respect to any contribution to a Wikimedia project. This could be a business, a charity, an educational institution, a government department or another individual, for example. The disclosure requirement is simple, and requires you to provide this information in one of the three ways described above. If you are editing an article on Wikipedia on behalf of your employer, for example, you must disclose your employer’s details. If you have been hired by a public relations firm to edit Wikipedia, you must disclose both the firm and the firm’s client. If you are a compensated Wikimedian in residence, for example, you must note the details of the GLAM organisation that is paying you.

Czy ujawnianie odpłatnego edytowania wymagane jest tylko przy edycjach artykułów w Wikipedii?

No, you must disclose your employment, client, and affiliation when making any type of paid contribution to any Wikimedia project. This includes edits on talk pages and edits on projects other than Wikipedia. That said, a simple disclosure on your user page satisfies this minimum requirement.

Czy wymóg ten oznacza, że odpłatne edycje są zawsze dozwolone, o ile to ujawnię?

No, the disclosures mandated by the Terms of Use reflect a minimum requirement that helps each Wikimedia project to enforce its own policies and guidelines as appropriate. Users must also comply with these additional policies and guidelines as well as any applicable laws. For example, English Wikipedia’s policy on neutral point of view requires that editing be done fairly, proportionally and (as far as possible) without bias; these requirements must be followed even if the contributor discloses making paid edits.

Czy oznacza to, że projekty Wikimedia muszą zmienić swoje zasady?

No, unless their policies are inconsistent with these minimum requirements. Wikimedia projects are free to change their policies to reference this requirement or require stricter requirements for paid contributions. We encourage users to be respectful of user privacy and not harass others, even in cases of suspected paid contributions. For example, under the English Wikipedia policy on harassment, users must not publicly share personal information about other users.

W jaki sposób powinienem ujawnić odpłatne edycje na swojej stronie użytkownika?

You may explain that you work for a particular client or employer on your user page. If you work for company Acme, and, as part of your job responsibilities, you edit Wikipedia articles about company Acme, you satisfy the minimum requirement of the Terms of Use if you simply say that you edit on behalf of company Acme on your user page. You however need to follow community or Foundation policies, in addition to applicable law.

W jaki sposób powinienem ujawniać odpłatne edycje w opisie zmian?

You may represent your employer, affiliation, and client in the edit summary box before you “save” your edit or contribution. For example, before saving your edits to a Wikipedia article about your client, Jordan Smith, you may write this note in the edit summary box: “Jordan Smith has hired me to update their Wikipedia article” or “I work for Jordan Smith.”

W jaki sposób powinienem ujawniać odpłatne edycje na stronie dyskusji?

You may represent your employer, affiliation, and client in the relevant talk page either before, or immediately after, you “save” your edit or contribution.

Czy powinienem ujawniać szczegóły dotyczące otrzymywanego przeze mnie wynagrodzenia?

Nie musisz ujawniać wysokości lub rodzaju wynagrodzenia, które otrzymujesz za edytowanie; wymagane jest tylko ujawnienie pracodawcy, klienta i przynależności.

Czy Wikimedia Foundation zachęca do odpłatnej aktywności edycyjnej lub ją akceptuje?

WMF feels that paid advocacy editing is a significant problem that threatens the trust of Wikimedia’s readers, as our Executive Director said in her statement on paid advocacy editing. This proposal does not change that position.

However, it is hard to solve the problem of paid advocacy editing without accidentally discouraging good-faith editors, like the various GLAM (gallery, library, archive, and museum) projects. Because of this difficulty, this amendment takes a simple approach: requiring straightforward disclosure of information. This does not mean that paid-advocacy editing is acceptable! Instead, we think that the best way to attack the complex problem while still encouraging new good faith contributions is to combine this pro-transparency requirement with per-project policies that use this new information to make nuanced, difficult case-by-case judgments. We hope that this will lead to the best outcome by combining each Wikimedian’s ability to handle nuance and complexity with the resources of the Foundation (when that is absolutely necessary).

Also the proposed amendment makes clear that “community and Foundation policies, such as those addressing conflicts of interest, may further limit paid contributions or require more detailed disclosure.” This provision gives the community discretion to further limit paid editing, including paid advocacy editing, according to the needs of the specific project. That is, the proposed amendment is a minimal requirement, but the community may impose greater restrictions or bans.

Przypisy

  1. Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45(a)(2) (2006)
  2. 16 C.F.R. §255.5, Example 8, p.12.
  3. Parino v. Bidrack, Inc., 838 F. Supp. 2d 900, 905 (N.D. Cal. 2011) (plaintiff’s allegations, including defendant’s creation and use of fake reviews on website, were sufficient to bring a claim under California’s Unfair Competition Law and False Advertising Law)
  4. Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament (Annex I, points 11 and 22).